Chalukyas of Kalyani (Western Chalukyas)
Chalukyas of Kalyani (Western Chalukyas): Chalukyas of Kalyani are also called Western Chalukyas. The rise of the Chalukyas of Kalyani took place at the same place after the fall of the Rashtrakuta dynasty. The native place of Chalukyas of Kalyani is the Kannada region (present-day Kerala).
- The state emblem of the Chalukyas of Kalyani was Varaha.
- The Chalukya dynasty of Kalyani was founded by Tailap II. Even before this the names of Kirtivarma III, Tailap I, Vikramaditya III, Bhimaraja, Ayyan I, and Vikramaditya IV are also mentioned, but all of them were not independent rulers but were acting as equals to the Rashtrakutas.
- The rule of all these rulers was in Bijapur and its adjoining area.
Chalukya (Western Chalukya) dynasty of Kalyani
Tailap II (973-997 AD)
- According to the Nilgund inscription, Ayyan I strengthened his political position by marrying the daughter of Rashtrakuta king Krishna II. Like this, his son Vikramaditya IV also married Bonthadevi, daughter of King Lakshnasen of the Kalachuri dynasty. Tailap II was the son of Vikramaditya IV and Bonthadevi of the Kalachuri dynasty.
- Tailap II was the founder of the Chalukya dynasty of Kalyani. Its contemporary Rashtrakuta dynasty ruler Krishna III's successor Khottig and Karka II were both weak and incompetent rulers. Taking advantage of this situation, Tailap II established his power by killing Karka II.
- Tailap II made Manyakheta his capital, which was also the capital of the earlier Rashtrakuta dynasty.
- He assumed the title of "Ashwamal".
- A poet named Merutung was in his court.
- Tailap II won many battles during his lifetime. But Tailap II had to face defeat in 6 conflicts with the Munj kingdom, the details of this information are found in the book "Prabandha Chintamani" by Merutang.
Satyasraya (997-1006 AD)
- Satyashraya became the ruler in 997 AD after the death of his father Tailap II.
- At the same time, Mahmud Ghaznavi attacked North India.
- Satyashray defeated Shilahar dynasty ruler Aparajit and Gurjanaresh Chamund Raj of Konkan.
- Satyashraya accepted his subjugation by attacking Vengi in 1006 AD.
Vikramaditya Pancham (1006-1015 AD)
- As Satyashraya did not have any son, he made Vikramaditya V, the son of his brother Dashvarma (Dasavarman), as his successor, who became the ruler after his death in 1006 AD.
- He is addressed as a successful and charitable ruler in the Cathom inscription.
Jai Singh II (1015-1043 AD)
- Jai Singh II became the ruler after the death of his brother Vikramaditya V.
- In the year 1020 AD, the Pavan ruler Rajabhoja attacked it and took control of Lat and Konkan from the territory of the Chalukya dynasty. Which was later recovered by Jai Singh after fighting.
- After the death of Vimaladitya, the ruler of Vengi in 1019 AD, a dispute arose between his two sons for the succession. Vimaladitya and Chola princess Kundavaidevi's son "Rajaraj" and his half-brother "Vishnuvardhan Vijayaditya VII" both wanted rights on the throne.
- Jai Singh II sent his army to help Vishnuvardhana Vijayaditya VII, similarly, the Chola ruler Rajendra I came forward to help Kundvaidevi's son in his dynasty. A war ensued between the two rulers, and Rajendra Chola defeated Jai Singh near Muski and made Rajaraja the ruler of the Chalukyas of Vengi.
Someshwara I (1043-1068 AD)
- Someshwara I became the ruler in 1043 AD after the death of his father Jai Singh II.
- Someshwara I shifted his capital from Manyakhet to Kalyani.
- According to the Nanded inscription, he defeated the rulers of Magadha, Kalink, and Anga and brought them under his control.
- The ruler of the Pawar dynasty, Raja Bhoj, was also forced to surrender in the war.
- During his lifetime, he could not conquer only the Cholas. Someswara I committed suicide by drowning in the Tungabhadra river near Karuvati after being defeated by the Chola king Veera Rajendra and suffering from a fatal disease.
Someshwara II (1068-1076 AD)
- Someshwara II became the ruler in 1068 AD after his father Someshwara I committed suicide.
- Its kingdom was attacked by the Chola ruler Veera Rajendra (1063-1067 AD) and after a treaty, married Vikramaditya VI, brother of Someshvara II, to his daughter.
- After this, the Chola dynasty started interfering in the kingdom of Someshvara and under pressure, declared his relative (son-in-law) Vikramaditya VI as the crown prince of the southern part of the Chalukya dynasty.
- In the year 1076 AD, Someshwar II made a treaty with a king named Kulotung and attacked Vikramaditya, and started a war. But with the help of the Cholas, Vikramaditya was victorious and Someshwara II was imprisoned for life.
Vikramaditya VI (1076-1126 AD)
- Vikramaditya VI became the ruler in 1076 AD after defeating his brother Someshvara II in battle.
- Vikramaditya VI was the most prolific ruler among the Chalukyas of Kalyani.
- It started the Chalukya Vikram era in 1076 AD.
- Due to the matrimonial relationship between Vikramaditya VI and the Chola kingdom, the Chalukya-Chol conflict was pacified during his reign and the reign was generally peaceful.
- It paid great attention to the rise of art and literature. Established a city called "Vikrampur" and built a grand temple of Lord Vishnu and a huge lake there.
- Vigyaneshwar, the author of Mitakshara and Vikramadevacharitram, was in his court.
- Vikramaditya VI was the last powerful ruler of the Chalukya dynasty of Kalyani. After his death, the decline of the Chalukyas of Kalyani started.
Someshwara III (1126-1138 AD)
- Someshwara III became the ruler in 1126 AD after the death of his father Vikramaditya VI.
- He assumed the titles of Bhulokamalla and Tribhuvanamalla.
- After the death of Vikramaditya VI, the Cholas resumed the struggle and in 1133 AD, in a battle on the banks of the Godavari river, they badly defeated Someshvara III.
Jagedak Malla II (1138-1155 AD)
- After the death of Someshvara III, his son Jagedak Malla II became the ruler.
- Jagedaka Malla II was an incompetent ruler. It was unable to carry forward the kingdom established by its ancestors.
Tailap III (1155–1163)
- After Jagedaka Malla II, his brother Tailap III became the ruler.
- Tailap III was also an inept and weak ruler.
- Taking advantage of this situation, Hoysalas, Kalachuri, and Yadavas declared their independent state from the neighboring states.
Jagedkamalla III (1163-1183 AD)
- After the death of Tailat III, his brother Jagedkamalla III took over the kingdom in 1163 AD. Jagedakamalla III had no successor.
Someshwara IV (1184-1200)
- In 1184 AD Someswara IV, son of Tailap III, took back the throne of his father. He was the last ruler of the Chalukya dynasty of Kalyani.
- By this time the Chalukya dynasty had become quite compact. It tried to bring back the lost prestige of the Chalukyas and started a war with the Hoysalas and the Kalachuris. After the war, the Kalchuris were completely eradicated.
- After this victory, he assumed the title of "Kalchuryakul Nirmulta".
- Someswara IV, despite his tireless efforts, could not suppress the rising rebellions in the state and the neighboring states again declared themselves independent, and gradually the Chalukya dynasty of Kalyani came to an end.