Delhi Sultanate – Khilji Dynasty
The establishment of power by Khilji is called revolution. However, there is a difference of opinion among historians as to whether Khilji was a Turk or not. The Khilji revolution is also called because this state was not based on ethnic superiority or the approval of the Caliph, but was based on the strength of power. Jalaluddin Khilji founded the Khilji dynasty. Jalaluddin Khilji killed the last Sultan of the Ghulam dynasty and made the Khiljis the Sultan of Delhi. The Khilji dynasty ruled from 1290 to 1320 AD. Alauddin Khilji (1296-1316 AD) was the most famous and capable ruler among the Khilji Sultans of Delhi.
The rulers of this dynasty were as follows:-
- Jalaluddin Khilji (1290 – 1296)
- Allahuddin or Alauddin Khilji (1296 – 1316)
- Shihabuddin Umar Khilji (1316)
- Qutbuddin Mubarak Khilji (1316 – 1320)
- Nasiruddin Khusravshah (1320)
Jalaluddin Firuz Khilji (1290 – 1296)
The founder of the 'Khilji Dynasty' in the Delhi Sultanate was Jalaluddin Firoz Khilji (1290-1296 AD).
- Started his life as a soldier.
- Making progress on the strength of merit, Jalaluddin had become a general and a subedar.
- After becoming the Sultan of Kekubad, he became Arije Mamalik and assumed the title of Shaista Khan.
- Killed the then ruler Kekubad and Kemurs and declared himself Sultan in 1290 AD Kilkhuri. Jalaluddin Firoz Khilji assumed the throne of Delhi on 13 June 1290 AD at the age of 70.
- The coronation of Jalaluddin Khilji took place in the palace of Kilkhari, built by Kaiqubad, which made Kilokhari his capital.
- Jalaluddin Khilji was the first ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, who clearly put forward his views that the basis of the state should be the support of the subjects, Khilji's policy was to keep others happy.
- Jalaluddin Khilji conspired against Sidi Maula who was a fakir who had come from Iran and crushed him under elephant feet.
- Firoz Khilji married his daughter to Ulugh Khan and established a settlement named Mughalpur for the new Muslims.
- It was during the time of Jalaluddin that Muslims invaded South India (Devagiri) under the leadership of Alauddin.
- Eminent persons like Amir Khusrau and Hasan Dehlvi lived in the court of Jalaluddin.
- In the conspiracy to kill Jalaluddin Khilji, Alauddin Khilji took the help of his brother Almas Veg, who was later bestowed with the title of 'Ulug Khan'. In this way, Alauddin Khilji killed the liberal uncle and got his coronation done on the throne of Delhi on 22 October 1296 at the Lal Mahal of Balban.
Allahuddin or Alauddin Khilji – (1296 – 1316 AD)
Alauddin Khilji was born as Juna Muhammad Khilji . He was the second ruler of the Khilji Empire who ruled from 1296 to 1316. At that time the most powerful ruler of the Khilji Empire was Alauddin Khilji. In his empire, he had banned the consumption of alcohol in the open.
- He deceived his uncle and declared himself Sultan on 19 July 1296 AD.
- The coronation took place on 12 October 1296 AD.
- Encouraged by his early successes, Alauddin assumed the title of 'Sikandar II' (Sani) and got it mentioned on his coins.
- He abandoned his idea of world conquest and established a new religion on the persuasion of his friend and Kotwal of Delhi 'Alaul Mulk'.
- He was the first Muslim ruler who spread his empire in South India and won.
- Alauddin called himself the "Second Alexander".
- In his empire, he had banned the consumption of alcohol in the open.
- The Khilji dynasty successfully repulsed several Mongol invasions from 1297 to 1305 but lost a dedicated general named Zafar Khan in 1299 AD.
- It is said that he attacked Chittor in 1303 to get Padmini, the queen of Chittor. This war is mentioned by the author Malik Muhammad Jayasi in his poem Padmavat in 1540 in the Awadhi language.
- Allauddin captured several kingdoms in the north including Malwa in 1305 and Siwana Fort in Rajasthan in 1308.
- Peninsular India witnessed the destruction of Madurai, the invasion of the Hoysala kingdom of Samudra in 1310 AD and the Pandya kingdom in 1311 AD, as well as the Devagiri annexation to Delhi in 1313 AD.
- There were also some rebellions in the kingdom of Alauddin Khilji, in which Nusrat Khan suppressed the revolt by 'Navi Muslims' in 1299 AD regarding the distribution of money received in the successful campaign of Gujarat.
- In the field of architecture, Alauddin Khilji got the circular 'Alai Darwaza' or 'Kushk-e-Shikar' constructed. The 'Alai Darwaza' built by him is considered one of the best specimens of early Turkish art.
- The last days of Alauddin Khilji's life were very painful. Taking advantage of his incompetence, Commander Malik Kafur captured the entire empire. At that time he became depressed and weak and he died in 1316 AD.
Shihabuddin Umar khilji (1316 AD)
Shihabuddin Umar Khilji was the son of Alauddin Khilji. At the behest of Malik Kafur, Alauddin appointed his 5-6-year-old son Shihabuddin Umar as his successor instead of making his son Khizr Khan the successor. After the death of Alauddin, Kafur made Shihabuddin the Sultan and secured all the authority in his hands. After enjoying power for about 35 days, Kafur was assassinated by Alauddin's third son Mubarak Khilji. After the murder of Kafur, he himself became the guardian of the Sultan and later he blinded Shihabuddin and imprisoned him.
Qutbuddin Mubarak Khilji (1316 – 1320 AD )
Qutbuddin Mubarak Khilji (1316-1320 AD) was the third son of Sultan Alauddin Khilji of the Khilji dynasty. One of the influential people of Alauddin, Malik Kafur was its patron. After some time Malik Kafur himself started dreaming of becoming Sultan and he hatched a plan to kill Mubarak Khilji. But after escaping from the intrigues of Malik Kafur, Mubarak Khilji ruled successfully for four years. During his reign, peace prevailed in the state.
- He released political prisoners.
- He started giving six months' advance salary to his soldiers.
- All the jagirs that were snatched from scholars and important people were returned to them.
- Alauddin Khilji's strict penal system and 'market control system' etc. were also abolished and the strict laws that were made were abolished.
- Qutbuddin Mubarak Khilji had assumed the titles of 'Al Imam', 'Ul Imam', and 'Khilafat-Ullah'.
- He removed his devotion to the caliphate and declared himself the 'supreme head of Islam' and 'the caliph of the lord of gold and earth'.
- Mubarak Khilji lost his mind after the conquest of Devgiri and Gujarat and he started indulging in luxuries. He liked the company of naked men and women. His Prime Minister Khusro Khan got him assassinated in 1320 AD.
Nasiruddin Khusarshahshah (1320 AD)
- Nasiruddin Khusravshah was a Hindu Converted to Muslim and was the last ruler of the Khilji dynasty in the Delhi Sultanate from April 15 to April 27, 1320 AD. By killing it, Khilji came to an end in the Delhi Sultanate.
After this dynasty, the Tughlaq dynasty emerged in the Delhi Sultanate.