Jainism (Based on NCERT)

Jainism (Based on NCERT)
Posted on 26-04-2022


Jainism is an ancient religion, according to the texts of Jainism, Jainism has been going on since time immemorial. Rishabh Dev was the first Tirthankara and founder of JainismRishabh Dev was the father of the great emperor Bharata. Rishabh Dev is also known as Adinath. Rishabh Dev is also mentioned in Shrimad BhagwatThe mention of some Jain Tirthankaras is also found in the ' Kesi Sukta ' of Rigveda. The symbol of Rishabh Dev is a bullRishabh Dev, the first Tirthankara of Jainism, died at Athavaya (Kailash mountain).

Parshvanath was the 23rd Tirthankara of JainismParshvanath was the son of King Ashwasen of Kashi. Parshvanath had left the planet at the age of 30 and became a recluse. Parshvanath had attained knowledge on the Sammay mountain. The followers of Parshvanath were called ' Nirgrantha '. Parshvanath was 250 years before Mahavir SwamiParshvanath had given entry to women in JainismThe symbol of Parshvanath is a snake.

Mahavir Swami was the last and 24th Tirthankara of JainismMahavir Swami was born in 540 BC at Kundagram near VaishaliMahavir's childhood name was VardhamanaHis father's name was Siddhartha and his mother's name was TrishalaThe symbol of Mahavira is a  lion.

Siddhartha, the father of Mahavir Swami, was the head of the Jythrik clanMahavir Swami's mother Trishala was the princess of the Lichchavi kingdom of Vaishali and the sister of King Chetak.

The name of the wife of Mahavir Swami was Yashoda, from whom a daughter was born, whose name was Anoja Priyadarshini.

Mahavir Swami attained knowledge after 13 years of hard penance under a Sal tree on the banks of river Rijupalika near Jummik village. Mahavir Swami's attainment of knowledge is known as ' Kaivalya ' in Jain texts. After attaining enlightenment, Mahavir Swami founded the Jain Sangh at Pavapuri.

Non-violence is the basic principle of Jainism. Jainism lays more emphasis on compassion and non-violence toward living beings. That is why the followers of Jainism are vegetarian.

In Jainism, there are three gems to get rid of the fruits of karma  right philosophyright knowledge, and right conduct.

The 23rd Tirthankara Parshvanath was in favor of wearing clothes, while the 24th Tirthankara Mahavir Swami favored being completely naked.

Like Buddhism, Jainism also believes in reincarnation. At the same time, it also believes that the soul remains hostage due to the deeds and desires of the previous birth.


Jainism does not believe in the existence of God but in the existence of the soulJainism does not consider God as the creator, but the creation of the universe is made up of six substances  – JivaPudgalDharmaAdharmaAkash, and Kaalwhich cannot be erased or recreated.

Seven elements are described in Jain texts, which are – JivaAjivaAsravaBandhaSamvaraNirjara, and  Moksha.

Goshal became the first associate of Mahavir Swami.

In the principles of Jainism, the place of the retired path is prominent.

Mahavir Swami had 11 disciples, who were called ' Gandharas or Gandharvas '.

During the Maurya period, Jainism was divided into two parts, Digambara and Shvetambara sects. Digambaras are those who remain naked and  Shvetambaras are those who wear white clothes.


The disciples of Bhadrabahu are called Digambaras and the disciples of Sthulabhadra are called ShvetambarasThe ' Kalpasutra ' composed by Bhadrabahu is considered to be the most important text of Jainism. The author of ' Nirukti ' is also Bhadrabahu.

In Buddhist literature, Mahavir Swami has also been called Nigastha Nataputra or Nirgrantha Satputra.

The biography of Jain Tirthankaras is described in a Jain text called ' Kalpasutra '. Jain literature is called ' Agam '. The fundamental texts of Jainism are called 'Purva'The Jains used natural language for their sermons.


Eighteen sins are considered in JainismThose are –  violenceuntruththeftpossessivenessangerprideMayagreedattachment, malicediscordsexblame,  slanderindulgence in incontinence, and arati in restraint, blasphemy, deceitful falsehood, and false vision.

Mathura and Ujjain have been quite famous as the major centers of Jainism. Mathura used to be a famous center of Jainism during the Maurya period.

Mahavir Swami died (Nirvana) at the age of 72 in 468 BC in a village called Pavapuri in Bihar.

Names of all 24 Tirthankaras of Jainism

(1) Rishabhdev or Adinath
(2) Ajitnath
(3) Sambhavnath
(4) Abhinandannath
(5) Sumatinath
(6) Padmaprabhu
(7) Suparsva
(8) Chandraprabhu
(9) Suvidhinath
(10) Sheetalnath
(11) Shreyas
(12) Vasupujya
(13) Vimalnath
(14) Anantnath
(15) Dharmanath
(16) Shantinath
(17) Kunthnath
(18) Arha or Arhanath
(19) Mallinath
(20) Munisuvratnath
(21) Neminath
(22) Arishtanemi
(23) Parshvanath
(24) Mahavir owner

Jainism means –

Jainism means ' one who believes or follows Jin ', which means ' conqueror ', that is, one who has completely controlled his mindspeech, and body or are said to have conquered them, he is the same, Jain. Is.

Five Mahavratas or Fundamental Principles of Jainism

  1. truth
  2. non-violence
  3. aparigraha
  4. asteya
  5. Brahmacharya Palan (Propounded by Mahavir Swami)


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