Mughal Empire (1526-1707) (Based on NCERT)

Mughal Empire (1526-1707) (Based on NCERT)
Posted on 29-04-2022

Mughal Empire (1526-1707)

The battle between Ibrahim Lodi and the Chughtai Turk Jalaluddin Babur was fought in the Panipat Plain on April 21, 1526 ,  in which the last ruler of the Lodi dynasty was defeated by Ibrahim Lodi and the nomad [1] Babur Ruled the Delhi Sultanate of the Ottoman Afghan-sultans for three centuries. was overthrown and laid the foundation of the Mughal Empire and the Mughal Sultanate. After the Gupta dynasty , the Mughal Empire was the only empire in central India that had a monopoly.

Babur - (1526-1530 AD)

Babur was born in the small princely state of Fargana in 1483 AD . Babur became the ruler of Fargana at the age of 11 after the death of his father . An invitation to Babur to come to India was sent by Daulat Khan Lodi , the Subedar of Punjab and Alam Khan Lodi , the uncle of Ibrahim Lodi .

The First Battle of Panipat was Babur's fifth invasion of India, in which he defeated Ibrahim Lodi and established the Mughal Empire. The main reason for his victory was his artillery and efficient army representation . Babur was the first to use cannon in India . In this first battle of Panipat, Babur used the ' Tulgma method of warfare ' of the Uzbeks and the ' Osmani method ' to decorate the guns, which was called the ' Rumi method '.' Also called, was used. In the joy of victory in the battle of Panipat, Babur donated a silver coin to every resident of Kabul. Because of his generosity, Babur was also called ' Kalandar '.

After the fall of Delhi Sultanate, Babur broke the tradition of calling his rulers (Delhi rulers) as ' Sultans ' and started calling himself ' Badshah '.

After the battle of Panipat, Babur's second important war against Rana Sangal took place on March 17, 1527 AD, at a place called Khanwa, 40 km from Agra. Babur assumed the title of 'Ghazi' after conquering. In order to increase the morale of his soldiers for this war, Babur gave the slogan of 'Jihad' [2]. At the same time, the tax on Muslims was announced to end 'Tamga', it was a type of commercial tax. The main reason for this 'Khanwa war' against the Rajputs was the determination of Babur to stay in India.

On January 29, 1528 , Babur attacked and defeated Medini Rai , the ruler of Chanderi . This victory was instrumental in helping Babur to conquer Malwa . After this Babur fought the ' Battle of Ghaghra ' on May 06, 1529 . In which Babur defeated the combined Afghan army of Bengal and Bihar .

Babur produced his autobiography ' Baburnama ', which is called Tuzuke Babri ' in Turkish . Which Babur wrote in his mother tongue Chagatai Turkish . In this Babur has given the details of the then Indian condition. The Persian translation by Abdurrahim Khankhana and the  English translation by Mrs.

Babur, in his autobiography 'Baburnama', has called Krishnadeva Raya , the then ruler of Vijayanagara , as the mighty king of contemporary India. Along with this, only five Muslim and two Hindu kings Mewar and Vijayanagar have been mentioned.

Babur composed ' Risal-e-Usaj ', also known as ' Khat-e-Babri '. Babur also got the compilation of a Turkish poetry collection ' Divan ' done. Babur also developed a style of poetry called ' Mubaiyan '.

Babur also got mosques built at Sambhal and Panipat . Also, Babar's general Mir Baqi built large mosque in Ayodhya between 1528 and 1529 , which came to be known as Babri Masjid [3] .

Babur had constructed garden in Agra , which was called ' Noor-e-Afghan ', which is presently known as ' Aram-Bagh '. Charbagh style has been used in this. It was here that after the death of Babur on December 26, 1530, he was buried . But after some time the body of Babur was buried in Kabul , the place chosen by him.

Babur had four sons Hindal , Kamran , Askari and Humayun . In which Humayun was the eldest, consequently after the death of Babur, his eldest son  Humayun became the next Mughal ruler .


Description of words used above

  1. Nomadic - Such a community or group of human beings, who, instead of living in one place, move continuously from one place to another.
  2. Jihad - The war of religions done for the protection of Islam is called Jihad.
  3. Babri Masjid – This is a controversial incident, which is still in controversies. This incident created a conflict between the two religions. The case has gone on for many years in the present Supreme Court regarding whether there was a Ram temple in Ayodhya or Babri Masjid, after which the court has accepted that the Ram temple was located there. 


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