Situation of Bengal after the Battle of Plassey: The Battle of Plassey is one of the major battles of India. This war also becomes important from the point of view that this was the first time when the British openly opposed an Indian power and they were successful in this. Siraj-ud-Daulah was defeated in this battle of Plassey, fought on June 23, 1757, and the British army led by Robert Clive was victorious with the help of Siraj -ud-Daulah's general, Mir Jaffar. Mir Jafar played an important role in this war.
Mir Jafar (1757-1760)
- Mir Jafar, the commander of the Nawab of Bengal, Siraj -ud-daula, joined hands with the British by making a secret treaty.
- According to this treaty, Mir Jafar was made the Nawab of Bengal, in return for which Mir Jafar gave a huge amount of two and a half crores to the British.
- The Company was given zamindari of 24 parganas as well as the right to conduct free trade throughout Bengal.
- Now the company was also free to operate its own currency in Bengal.
- Robert Clive also benefited from this war and was made the governor of Bengal.
- Mir Jafar was an incompetent ruler, who realized that the British did not take long and he was removed by making false allegations. His son-in-law Mir Qasim was declared the next Nawab.
Mir Qasim (1760-1763)
- Mir Qasim was the son-in-law of Mir Jafar. Mir Qasim was the most qualified Nawab after Alivardi Khan.
- The "Treaty of Munger" between Mir Qasim and the British took place on September 27, 1760.
- As soon as Mir Qasim became the Nawab, the struggle started between the British and it.
- The terms were not clear in the Treaty of Munger between the two sides, due to which both started taking their own meanings.
- It shifted its capital from Murshidabad to Munger.
- The misuse of the decree "Dastak" given by the Mughal emperor to the British was prevented.
- Abolished the internal tax levied on Indian traders.
- A tax "Khiranji" was also collected from the British officers in the form of savings.
- Gun and cannon factory set up.
- The British did not like its reforms and after removing it, Mir Jafar was declared the Nawab.
Mir Jafar (1763-1765)
- After removing Mir Qasim from the post of Nawab, it was again made the Nawab of Bengal.
- Mir Qasim met Shuja-ud-daula, the Nawab of Awadh and Shah Alam II, the Mughal emperor of Delhi, started preparing for the war.
- The Battle of Buxar took place on 22 October 1764 , as a result of which-
- The Mughal emperors Shah Alam II and Shuja-ud-daula surrendered to the British and Mir Qasim fled.
- Now Bengal was completely ruled by the British.
- After the death of Mir Jafar in 1765, Najmuddaula was made the Nawab of Bengal.
- During this time, Clive made two separate treaties of Allahabad-
- First Treaty of Allahabad – From Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II
- This treaty took place on 12 August 1765.
- This treaty was signed by Robert Clive , Shah Alam II and Najm-ud-Daulah.
- The Diwani of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa was given to the British.
- The company will give an annual pension of Rs 26 lakh to Shah Alam II. On this point of the treaty, Ghulam Hussain wrote in his book that "it took the same time to write and sign this treaty as it takes to buy a donkey".
- Second Treaty of Allahabad - with the Nawab of Awadh
- This treaty was signed on August 16, 1765.
- This treaty was signed by Robert Clive and Shuja-ud-Daulah.
- The districts of Allahabad and Kara were given from Awadh to the Mughal emperor Shah Alam II.
- Shuja-ud-daula had to pay 50 lakh rupees to the British as war (Buxar) loss.
- The British got the freedom of free trade in the kingdom of the Nawab of Awadh.
- The Nawab could not help the opponents of the British and both would cooperate with each other in times of calamity.
- The British Company had received the Diwani of the whole of Bengal. He also acquired the power of "Nijayat" (law and justice system) in Bengal by giving another 53 lakh rupees to Najmuddaula.
- After the death of Najmuddaula, Saifuddaula became the Nawab of Bengal.
- Saifuddaula was only a puppet Nawab, he did not do any special work, mainly the rule was run by the British.
- Mubarak-ud-daula was the last Nawab of Bengal. After this the British started appointing the Governor General.
- The British imposed diarchy (1765-1772) in Bengal after the Second Treaty of Allahabad.
- In this rule the real power was with the Company while the responsibility of administration was on the shoulders of the Nawab.
- Under the diarchy, the Company appointed three Deputy Diwans.
- In Bengal – Muhammad Raza Khan
- In Bihar – Sitab Ram
- In Orissa – Ram Rare
Warren Hastings (1772–1774) became the next Governor General of Bengal. As soon as he became the governor general, he ended the diarchy and put the rule of Bengal directly under the control of the British state and with this the post of Nawab of Bengal came to an end.