Anglo-Maratha Wars: There have been three Anglo-Maratha wars in the history of India. The First Anglo-Maratha War (1775–1782), the Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803–1806), and the Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817–1818) took place. This war took place between the British and the Maratha Empire. Anglo Maratha Yudh in Hindi. Anglo-Maratha War – NCERT-based short notes.
- There have been three Anglo-Maratha wars in the history of India.
- These three wars took place between 1775 and 1818.
- These wars took place between the British forces and the Maratha Federation.
- The result of these wars was that the Maratha federation was completely destroyed.
- In 1773, Raghunath Rao became Peshwa after killing his nephew Narayan Rao.
- But he remained Peshwa for some time, later Narayan Rao's widow installed his younger son Madhavrao Narayan Rao II (Sawai Madhavrao) on the throne of Peshwa with the help of Nana Fadnavis.
- Raghunath Rao's Peshwa's throne was snatched away. To retrieve which he came to seek help from the British.
- Raghunath Rao made the "treaty of Surat" with the help of the British with the dream of becoming a Peshwa.
Treaty of Surat (1775) - The British agreed to give a contingent of 2500
soldiers to Raghunath Rao to get the Peshwa's throne back. Raghunath Rao promised to the British the territories of Salsette and Basin, conquered by Bajirao from the Portuguese in 1739.
First Anglo-Maratha War (1775-1782)
- The British started this war to make Raghunath Rao back to Peshwa.
- During this war, the Treaty of Purandar was signed in 1776 AD.
- But after making the Treaty of Purandar, the British refused to accept this treaty and said that we have already made the Treaty of Surat in 1775. So the war continued again.
- In this war, Colonel Keating, Colonel Upton, Colonel Agtus, and then Colonel Cockburk led the British. Warren Hastings was the governor of Bengal during this time period.
- Mahadji Scindia and Malharrao Holkar were leading from the side of Marathas.
- The war finally ended with the Treaty of Salbai in 1782. Treaty of Salbai (1782) - Under this treaty, the British refused to help Raghunath Rao and agreed to give him a 25000 monthly pension. Madhavrao Narayan Rao II was considered the next Peshwa. It was also decided that there would be no war between the British and the Marathas for the next 20 years.
- As a result of this war, it can be said that the Marathas had the upper hand in this war and the British had to suffer.
Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803–1806)
- In 1800 AD, Nana Fadnavis died and after that, a lot of discrimination and power conspiracies started within the Marathas. The Marathas were divided among Peshwa, Scindia, Gaikwad, Holkar, and Bhosale, and among them there used to be mutual conflict over the right to power.
- Fighting between the Holkars and the Peshwas was common.
- Holkar removed Bajirao II and placed Vinayakrao on the throne of Peshwa in Pune.
- Then Bajirao II, like his father Raghunath Rao, went to Basin to seek help from the British and in 1802 the "Treaty of Basin" was concluded.
Treaty of Basin (1802)
- Bajirao II accepted the "subsidiary treaty" made by Lord Wellesley. Under the subsidiary treaty, there was a provision to keep a contingent of an English army in its state, whose financial expenses also had to be borne by the state itself. The state was forbidden to have its own army. Along with this, the British government was responsible for all the external affairs of the state and the security of other states. There was also a provision of not having any relationship with any other European company.
Along with this, the British company will get Surat city.
- Englishman Bajirao II help him to get back the throne of Peshwa.
- During his lifetime, Nana Fadnavis had realized the devious motive of the British hidden behind the subsidiary treaty, so he had already rejected this treaty. But when this treaty was accepted by Bajirao II, the Marathas found their existence in danger and altogether opposed it.
- This war, war was fought on behalf of the British under the leadership of Lord Wellesley and various chieftains led from the side of the Marathas.
- As a result of this war, it can be said that the British had the upper hand in this war. The main reason for the defeat of the Marathas was the lack of unity among them. To say that all the Marathas were together but could not fight unitedly due to their internal strife.
- With the help of the British, Bajirao II got the Peshwa's throne back.
- This war ended with the "Treaty of Rajapur Ghat" in 1806.
Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817–1818)
- By this time the Marathas had become very weak, and the British were looking for an excuse for war to take advantage of this.
- According to one incident, a minister of the Peshwa killed the messenger of Gaekwad, due to which the British got swept away and the Anglo-Maratha Third War was declared.
- In this war, the British fought under the leadership of Lord Marquis Hastings and the Maratha side was led by Bajirao II and other Maratha chieftains.
- This war ended with the "Treaty of Poona".
Treaty of Poona (1818) - The post of Peshwa was abolished
by the British. - The last Peshwa Bajirao II was sent to Bithoor near Kanpur with a pension, where he died in 1853.
- After the death of Bajirao II, his adopted son (adopted) Dhodhu Pant also demanded a pension from the British but was refused by the British.
- Dhodhu Pant also participated in the rebellion of 1857 against the British along with Rani Lakshmi Bai and Tatya Tope.