Chalcolithic Period: The Chalcolithic Age or Chalcolithic culture started after the Neolithic Age. In the Chalcolithic age or Chalcolithic culture, copper was also used in abundance along with stone in the manufacture of tools, tools and weapons, hence this time is called Chalcolithic age or Chalcolithic age.
- At the end of the Neolithic age , the use of metals started increasing, first of all, copper was used in metals. So the culture which used copper along with stone is called Chalcolithic, which means 'state of use of stone and copper'.
- From a technical point of view, the Chalcolithic age predates the Harappan Bronze Age culture. But in India the Harappan Bronze culture comes first and most of the Chalcolithic cultures later.
- The people of Chalcolithic age did animal husbandry and agriculture. Apart from wheat, rice, they used to grow pulse crops like millet, lentil, urad and moong etc.
- They reared sheep, goats, cows, buffaloes and pigs. Used to hunt deer. Evidence of this fact that he was familiar with camel has also been received in the form of the remains of a camel. The people of this culture or era in general were not familiar with the horse.
- The people of the Chalcolithic age lived in villages as communities and were spread over vast parts of the country where mountainous lands and rivers were located. Historians are of the opinion that the Chalcolithic people did not use pucca bricks, possibly they were not familiar with pucca bricks.
- The people of the Chalcolithic period knew how to make clothes. Also he was an artisan of clay toys and idols (of terracotta). There were also kumbhakars, metallurgists, ivory craftsmen and chuna-making craftsmen.
- Most of the pottery of the Chalcolithic period were of black and red color, which were made on chalk, sometimes with white colored linear figures on them.
- The clay female idol suggests that the Chalcolithic people worshiped the mother-goddess and possibly the Vrishabha (bull) was a symbol of the religious cult.
- There are many Chalcolithic settlements in India, chronologically some are Pre-Harappan, some are contemporary to Harappan culture and some are post-Harappan culture.
Chalcolithic settlements in India:
- South East Rajasthan – Ahar (Udaipur), Gilund (Rajsamand)
- Western Maharashtra – Jokhe , Nevasa, Songaon and Daimabad (Ahmednagar), Chandauli (Kolhapur), Inamgaon – The largest settlement of this era has been found here (Pune)
- Western Madhya Pradesh – Malwa (Malwa), Kayatha (Mandla), Eran (Guna)
Chalcolithic Exam Useful Quiz
In which district are the signs of copper culture available in Rajasthan?
In Rajasthan, signs of copper culture are available in Udaipur and Rajsamand districts.
In which district there are signs of copper culture?
The signs of copper culture are in Udaipur and Rajsamand in Rajasthan state, Ahmednagar, Kolhapur and Pune in Maharashtra state and Malwa, Mandla and Guna districts of Madhya Pradesh state.
Which metal was first used in the Chalcolithic period?
Copper was first used in the Chalcolithic period.
Where is the largest settlement of Chalcolithic age found?
The largest settlement of Chalcolithic age has been found in Inamgaon, Maharashtra.
Content Based on NCERT