Chauhan dynasty: Chauhan dynasty was established by Vasudev in the area of Sapadalaksha in 551 AD. Vasudev is also called the Adi Purush of the Chauhans. The Bijolia inscription of Sambhar lake gives information regarding the establishment of the Chauhan dynasty.
Following is the list of the major kings of the Chauhan dynasty –
- Vasudev - He founded the Chauhan dynasty in 551 AD.
- Raja Ajayraj (1105-1133 AD) – He founded Ajmer city in 1113 AD.
- Somdev Vigraharaj IV (1158–1164) – He was also addressed as Bisaldev. His period is also called the golden period of the Chauhan dynasty, he expanded his kingdom to Delhi. He had built a Sanskrit school in Ajmer. Which was broken by Qutubuddin Aibak and made a hut of two and a half days.
- Prithviraj Chauhan III (1178-1192 AD) – He was a powerful king of this dynasty. His rule was from Ajmer to Delhi.
Prithviraj Chauhan III (1178-1192)
- He was born to King Someshwar of Ajmer State. His mother's name was Karpoordevi.
- Prithviraj Chauhan had a total of 12 wives, of which Sanyogita is the most famous. Sanyogita was the daughter of King Jayachandra of the Kannauj kingdom.
- The first battle of Tarain was fought in 1191 between Prithviraj Chauhan and Mohammad Ghori. Mohammad Ghori was badly defeated in this war.
- Muhammad Ghori's real name was Mohammed bin Sham and its main objective in invading India was to establish a Muslim nation. It came to India through the 'Gomal Pass' of Afghanistan. Gomal Pass is currently located on the 'Durand Line' passing between Afghanistan and Pakistan. Afghanistan was earlier called 'Ghor' hence Mohammed bin Sham came to be called 'Ghori' which later became 'Ghori'.
- Coming through the Gomal Pass, he first conquered Multan then Kutch.
- The second battle of Tarain took place in (1192 AD). Mohammad Ghori badly defeated Prithviraj Chauhan and Prithviraj died.
- Chand Bardai was the Raj poet of Prithvi Raj Chauhan. His famous composition is 'Prithviraj Raso', according to which Mohammad Ghori was killed by prisoner Prithviraj Chauhan after the second battle of Tarain, but no other historical facts are available for this, so it seems to be just a fiction. In 'Prithviraj Raso' this incident is depicted through the following lines –
“chaar baans chaubees gaj, angul asht pramaan.
ta oopar sultaan hai, mat chuke chauhaan”..
(Lines Prithviraj Raso)
- Mohammad Ghori defeated another powerful Kanauj Rajput ruler, Jaichand, in the battle of Chandawar in 1194 AD.
- On the banks of the river in the Jhelum region, Mohammad Ghori was killed in 1206 AD by a Jat tribe called Khokhar to avenge the attacks on them in 1205 AD.
- After the death of Mohammad Ghori, due to his no children, his slave Qutubuddin Aibak established his royal dynasty. Which is known as the Mamluk or Slave dynasty.