Delhi Sultanate – Mamluk or Slave Dynasty (Based on NCERT)

Delhi Sultanate – Mamluk or Slave Dynasty (Based on NCERT)
Posted on 28-04-2022

Delhi Sultanate – Mamluk or Slave Dynasty

Qutbuddin Aibak was a slave of Muhammad Ghori. The dynasty he established in India is called the Slave DynastyThis dynasty ruled for 84 years from 1206 to 1290 ADThe rulers or founders of this dynasty were slaves (slaves) and not kings. That is why it is called a dynasty instead of a dynasty.

The rulers of this dynasty were as follows:-

  1. Qutbuddin Aibak (1206 – 1210)
  2. Aramshah (1210)
  3. Iltutmish (1210 – 1236)
  4. Rukunuddin Ferozshah (1236)
  5. Razia Sultan (1236 – 1240)
  6. Muizuddin Bahram Shah (1240 – 1242)
  7. Alauddin Masood Shah (1242 – 1246)
  8. Nasiruddin Mahmud (1246 – 1266)
  9. Ghiyasuddin Balban (1266 – 1286)
  10. Kaiqubad (1286 – 1290)
  11. Shamshuddin Qirsh (1290)
  • Qutubuddin Aibak (1206 – 1210 AD)

Qutbuddin Aibak was the first Sultan of the Delhi Sultanate. This is said to be the founder of the Delhi slave dynasty, Qutubuddin Aibak was a slave of Muhammad Ghori. When Muhammad Ghori went back to Afghanistan after plundering India, he appointed his slaves in India who would rule India in his name.

Reign –  1206 – 1210 AD.

Ascension -  After the death of Muhammad Ghori,  on June 25, 1206, the unofficial accession of Qutubuddin Aibak took place in Lahore. He made Lahore his capital.

Guru –  Khwaja Qutbuddin Bakhtiyar Kaka.

major contribution

  • Established the Delhi Sultanate.
  • He was also known as 'Lakhbakhsh'  due to being generous and generous.
  • He was a patron of literature and the arts.
  • Farrukhmuddar and Hasan Nizami were famous scholars of his court.

Construction work

  • Two famous mosques, Qubat-ul-Islam in Delhi and two and a half days hut of Ajmer were built.
  • Constructed a storey of Qutub Minar in the memory of his guru  Khwaja Qutbuddin Bakhtiyar Kaka  (due to his death it remained incomplete). It was completed by Iltutmish.

Son-in-law - Iltutmish.

Son – Aramshah (Many historians do not consider it the son of Qutubuddin Aibak).

Death – In November 1210 AD, he died due to falling from a horse while playing Chogan (Polo) in Lahore.

  • Aramshah (1210 AD)

After the sudden death of Qutbuddin Aibak, the Turkish nobles made his son Aramshah the Sultan of Lahore in 1210 AD. Meanwhile, Aramshah could not control the invasion of Qubacha and Khiljis. As a result, the Turkish nobles wanted to make the governor of Budaun, Iltutmish, who was the son-in-law of Qutbuddin Aibak, the Sultan, which was opposed by Aramshah. Iltutmish captured power by killing Aramshah.

  • Illtutmish (1210 – 1236 AD)

Iltutmish belonged to the Ilbari tribe of Turkistan. Its original name was 'Altamash'Impressed by the efficiency of Iltutmish against the Khokhars, Muhammad Ghori gave him an important post named 'Amirul Umra'. It ruled from 1210 AD to 1236 AD. Many Turkic nobles were opposing him from the time of his coronation.

After attaining the rank of Sultan, Iltutmish had to face some difficulties. Under this, Iltutmish first suppressed the rebellion of 'Kulbi' i.e. chieftain during the time of Qutubuddin Aibak, and 'Muizzi' i.e. the chieftains of the time of Muhammad Ghori. Iltumish, not trusting these rebel chiefs, formed a group or organization of his 40 slave chieftains, which was named 'Turkan-i-Chihalgani'This organization is also known as 'Charagan'.

Reign –  1210 – 1236 AD.

Ascension - Aibak, with the permission of the commander Amid Ali Ismail, killed Aramshah and established the Ilbari dynasty in place of the Aibak dynasty in Delhi in 1210 AD.

 

Guru –  Khwaja Qutbuddin Bakhtiyar Kaka.

Daughter- Razia Sultan.

major contribution

  • He moved his capital from Lahore to Delhi.
  • The three important parts of the Sultanate were the iqta, the army, and the currency system.
    • Iqta – To provide land in the form of salary instead of money.
  • Iltutmish introduced new coins silver tanka and copper coin Jatal.
  • Iltumish, not trusting the rebel chiefs, formed a faction or organization of his 40 slave chieftains, which was named 'Turkan-i-Chihalgani'. This organization is also called 'Charagan'.

Construction work

  • In the memory of Khwaja Qutbuddin Bakhtiyar Kaka, Qutub Minar was completed in 1231-32 AD.
  • Iltutmish is also credited with possibly getting the first tomb built in India. Iltutmish's tomb is located in Delhi, which is an orbital tomb.
  • Iltutmish got  the Jama Masjid at Badaun and the gate of Atarkin built in Nagaur .
  • It was Iltutmish who built the 'Ajmer ki Masjid' .
  • He built the Hauz-e-Shamshi (Shamsi Idgah) reservoir of Mehrauli in 1230.

patronage of scholars 

  • The then learned court writer   Minhaj was Siraj, who composed the famous text Tabakate-Nasiri and patronized Malik Tajuddin.

important war

  • Iltutmish conquered Bengal in 1226 AD and made Bengal an Iqta (Diocese) of the Delhi Sultanate.
  • Iltutmish conquered Ranthambore in 1226 AD and occupied Mandaur, the capital of the Paramaras.
  • During the period of Iltutmish 1221 AD, the Mongols attacked India under the leadership of Genghis Khan.

Death

  • He died in 1236 AD while suppressing the campaign of Khokro.
  • Rukn ud din Firuzshah (1236 AD)

Rukunuddin Firoz Shah was the ruler of the Ghulam dynasty in the Delhi Sultanate. After the death of Iltutmish in 1236, he remained in power for less than a year. He was the youngest son of Iltutmish.

  • Razia Sultan (1236 – 1240 AD)

Razia al-Din, the royal name "Jalolat ud-Din Raziyo", commonly known as "Razia Sultan" or "Razia Sultana", was a sultan of the Delhi Sultanate. She was the daughter of Iltutmish. Razia Sultana was the first female ruler in Muslim and Turkish history.

Reign –  1236 – 1240 AD.

Ascension - With the support of the public, the coronation was done in November 1236 AD.

  • Razia Sultan was the first and last female Sultan of the Delhi Sultanate.
  • Like men, Razia ruled in the court wearing a cloak ( Kaaba) kulah (cap).
  • Razia used to take care of the army and the general public with her political understanding and policies.

Death

  • Razia successfully suppressed the revolt of Lahore. But when she was coming to Delhi with Yakrit after fighting Altunia, the administration of Bathinda, she was killed on the way on October 14, 1240.
  • Muiz ud din Bahramshah (1240 – 1242 AD)

After killing Razia Sultan in 1240 AD, his brother Muizuddin Bahramshah (1240 AD) took control of the Sultanate. It was made the post of Naib-e-Mumlaqat (patron) by the Turkish nobles. He was a nominal ruler, in fact, only Chalisa was ruling. The Turk nobles killed Bahram Shah in 1242 AD.

  • Ala ud-Din Masudshah (1242 – 1246 AD)

Alauddin Masud Shah was a Turkish ruler who became the seventh sultan of the Delhi Sultanate. He was also from the slave dynasty. He  was the grandson of Rukunuddin Firoz  Shah and the son of Muizuddin Bahram Shah . During his time the post of Naib went to Malik Qutbuddin Hasan, the leader of the group of non-Turkish warlords. The real authority to rule was with Vazir Muhajuddin, who was Tajik (non-Turk) by caste. Najumuddin Abu Bakr got this post as a result of the opposition of the Turkish chiefs. It was during this time that Balban got the title of Hansi'Rich Hajib'The post of Iltutmish was received by Ghiyasuddin Balban, a member of the 'Forty Turks' group. In 1245, the Mongols captured Uchch, but Balban drove the Mongols from Uchchh, this increased the prestige of Balban. Remaining in the position of Amir Hajib, Balban took the real authority of governance into his hands. Ultimately, Balban, along with  Nasiruddin Mahmud and his mother, conspired to remove Alauddin Masood from the throne. He succeeded in this in June 1246. Balban replaced Iltutmish's great-grandson Nasiruddin Mahmud as Sultan in place of Alauddin Masood.

  • Nasir ud din Mahmud (1246 – 1266 AD)

Nasiruddin Mahmud was a Turkish ruler who became the eighth sultan of the Delhi Sultanate. He was also from the slave dynasty. Balban, by conspiracy, removed Sultan Masood Shah and made Nasiruddin Mahmud the Sultan in 1246 AD. Balban got his daughter married to Nasiruddin Mahmud. Nasiruddin was a man of sweet and religious nature. As a ruler, Nasiruddin lacked the necessary qualities to face the then complex situation. Nasiruddin died on 12 February 1266 AD. After that, he did not have any male heirs left. Thus ended the dynasty of IltutmishThen Balban, whose merit had been proved and who was nominated as his successor by the late Sultan, is said to have ascended the throne with the tacit approval of the chieftains and office-bearers.

  • Ghiyas ud din Balban (1266 – 1286 AD)

Ghiyasuddin Balban  His real name was Bahauddin. He ruled from 1266 to 1286. Ghiyasuddin Balban was an Ilbari Turk by caste. In his childhood, the Mongols caught him and sold him as a slave in the market of Baghdad. Khwaja Jamaluddin along with his other slaves brought him to Delhi in 1232 AD. All these were bought by Sultan Iltutmish. Thus Balban belonged to the famous group of Turkish slaves called Chehlagan of Iltutmish.

Title – Zilla-Elahi .

Work 

  • As soon as he sat on the post of Sultan, the influence of Chalisa ended.
  • To strengthen his position, the remaining members of Iltutmish's family were killed.
  • Subedar Tugril Khan from Bengal revolted in 1276 AD, due to which he got killed in anger.

principle of force

  • Balban considered the Sultan as the representation of Allah on earth.
  • According to him, the Sultan is Jille Allah, that is, the shadow of God.

rule prevailing by force 

  • The Sultan could not meet the common people.
  • He got his name inscribed on the coin and had the name of the Caliph read in the Khutba.
  • High-ranking people were made officials.
  • He lived in solitude, not disturbed by joy or sorrow. Drinking and entertainment activities were stopped.
  • He started the practice of Sijda and Pebos in the court.
  • No one could bring a smile to his lips.

contemporary poet 

  • Amir Khusrau (Tutie-Hind)
  • Amir Hassan

Death 

  • 1286 AD (in mourning the death of his eldest son in the Mongoli conflict)
  • Qaiqabad (1286 – 1290 AD)

Before his death, Balban had appointed Kaikhusro, the son of his eldest son, as his successor. But after the death of Balban, the Kotwal of Delhi, Fakhruddin Muhammad, through diplomacy, gave Kaikhusaro the subedari of Multan and placed Kaiqubad on the throne of Delhi. Kaiqubad or 'Kaikobad' (1286-1290 AD) was placed on the throne of Delhi at the age of 17-18 years. Kaiqubad made the non-Turk chieftain Jalaluddin Khilji his commander, which had a bad effect on the Turk chieftains. The Turk chieftains were thinking of taking revenge that Kaiqubad was paralyzed. Due to paralysis, Kaiqubad became incapable of administration.

  • Shamsuddin Kayumars (1290 AD)

Shamshuddin Qirsh was the last ruler of the slave dynasty in India. Due to the paralysis of Kaiqubad, he was completely incapable of the work of administration. Seeing him incompetent in the works of administration, the Ottoman chiefs declared his three-year-old son  Shamsuddin Qamarsh as Sultan. Later,  Jalaluddin Firoz Khilji killed Shamsuddin after seeing an appropriate opportunity. After the murder of Shamsuddin, Jalaluddin Firoz Khilji himself took control of the throne of Delhi. In this way, the Khilji dynasty was later established on the throne of Delhi .

 

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