Delhi Sultanate – Sayyid Dynasty (Based on NCERT)

Delhi Sultanate – Sayyid Dynasty (Based on NCERT)
Posted on 28-04-2022

Delhi Sultanate – Sayyid Dynasty (1414 – 1451 AD)

The Sayyid dynasty  was the fourth dynasty to rule the Delhi Sultanate. This dynasty ruled the Delhi Sultanate from 1414 to 1451 AD. He established the kingdom after the Tughlaq dynasty. This dynasty was the last dynasty of the Turkic race of Muslims.

Rulers of Sayyid  Dynasty:-

  1. Syed  Khizr Khan (1414 – 1421 AD)
  2. Mubarak Shah (1421 – 1434 AD)
  3. Muhammad Shah (1434 – 1445 AD)
  4. Alamshah Shah (1445 – 1476 AD)

Sayyid Khizr Khan (1414 – 1421 AD)

Khizr Khan founded the Yad dynasty. Khizr Khan captured the throne of Delhi in 1414 AD. Khizr Khan did not take the title of Sultan and kept himself happy with the title of 'Raiyat-i- Aala'. When Timur was going back after plundering India, he appointed Khizr Khan as the ruler of Multan,  Lahore, and  Dipalpur. During the reign of Khizr Khan,  Punjab, Multan, and Sindh again came under the Delhi Sultanate.

 The Sultan also had to resort to military campaigns every year to collect revenue. He got the name of Tughlaq Sultans inscribed on his coins. Firishta has described Khizr Khan as a just and generous ruler.


  • Khizr Khan died on May 20, 1421.
  • According to the angel, on the death of Khizr Khan, the young, old slaves, and freedmen all expressed grief by wearing black clothes.

Mubarak Shah (1421 – 1434 AD)

After the death of Khizr Khan, his son Mubarak Shah took over the power of Delhi as his successor. Unlike his father, he declared himself the Sultan.

Works of Mubarak Shah 

  • He founded a city named Mubarakabad in 1434 AD on the banks of the river Yamuna.
  • Mubarak Shah took the title of 'Shah' and issued coins in his name.
  • He wrote 'Khutba (praising composition)' under his own name .and thus put an end to foreign ownership.
  • For the first time in the time of Mubarak Shah, two important Hindu nobles are mentioned in the Delhi Sultanate.
  • He had given his kingdom to the scholar 'Yahiya bin Ahmed Sirhindi' Information about the reign of Mubarak Shah is available in his book  'Tarikh-e-Mubarakshahi'.


  • Mubarak Shah's vizier Sarwar-ul-Mulk conspired to assassinate Mubarak Shah on February 19, 1434.

Muhammad Shah (1434 – 1445 AD)

Mubarak Shah's adopted son Muhammad Shah (Muhammad bin Kharch Khan) was made the Sultan of Delhi on 19 February 1434 by joining the Wazir Sarwar-ul-Mulk and other amirs. This gave the title of ' Khan-i-Khana' to the Subedar Wahlol of MultanMuhammad Shah was a nominal ruler. The vizier Sarwar-ul-Mulk had complete control over the administrationAs soon as Muhammad Shah became the ruler, the vizier took control of the armory, treasury, and elephants. Vazir Sarwar-ul-Mulk was plotting to kill Muhammad Shah. Even before this, Muhammad Shah killed the Wazir and his supporters. Muhammad Shah made Kamalamulk the new vizier.

In 1440 AD, Mahmud Khilji attacked Muhammad Shah, but after the war, a treaty was made between the two. Muhammad Shah named Bahlol Lodi as his son.


  • Bahlol Lodi attacked   Delhi in 1443 AD. He died during that time. But some scholars consider his death in 1445 AD.

Alamshah shah (1445 – 1476 AD)

Alamshah Shah ( Alauddin Shah ), was the son of Muhammad Shah. After the death of Muhammad Shah in 1445 AD, the chieftains declared his son Alauddin Alamshah as the ruler of this specific state, in which now only the city of Delhi and the adjoining villages remained. Alamshah Shah was very weak and unfit. He gave the throne of Delhi to Bahlol Lodi in 1451 AD and left Delhi in a scandalous manner in 1447 AD and went to his favorite place, Budaun.


  • Alauddin Shah (Alamshah Shah) died in 1476 AD.


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