Density of Population in India

Density of Population in India
Posted on 22-08-2023

Population Density Analysis

Population density serves as a crucial metric for comprehending the distribution of population across different regions. It is defined as the number of individuals per unit area and offers insights into the concentration of people within a given space. The 2011 census reported India's population density as 382 people per square kilometer, underlining a persistent upward trend since 1921.

In 2023, the population density of India stands at 434.60 individuals per square kilometer, marking a 0.81% rise from the figures recorded in 2022. Comparatively, the population density in 2022 was 431.11 individuals per square kilometer, reflecting a 0.68% growth compared to the previous year, 2021. Similarly, the population density in 2021 was 428.19 individuals per square kilometer, showing a 0.8% increase from 2020. The population density was 424.79 individuals per square kilometer in 2020, indicating a 0.96% upsurge from the statistics of 2019.

Geographical Patterns at the State Level in India

To facilitate analysis, population density can be categorized into several levels:

  1. Areas of Extremely Low Density: These areas, with 100 or fewer people per square kilometer, encompass states and Union Territories (UTs) facing specific challenges:

    • Arunachal Pradesh (17): Due to remote and inaccessible locations.

    • Sikkim (86): Characterized by mountainous terrain.

    • Andaman and Nicobar (46): Geographical isolation from the mainland.

  2. Areas of Low Density: This category includes areas with population densities ranging from 101 to 250 persons per square kilometer. Various factors influence these states and UTs:

    • Meghalaya (132), Nagaland (119), Manipur (122): Mountainous terrain and forests.

    • Erstwhile Jammu and Kashmir (124): Dry and cold conditions.

    • Himachal Pradesh (123), Uttarakhand (189): Scarce level land availability.

    • Rajasthan (201): Desert region.

    • Chhattisgarh (189) and Madhya Pradesh (236): Rugged topography.

  3. Areas of Moderate Density: Encompassing regions with 251 to 500 people per square kilometer, these states and UTs are influenced by factors like:

    • Assam (397): Presence of tea estates.

    • Tripura (350): Mountainous terrain and forests.

    • Andhra Pradesh including Telangana (308), Odisha (269), Karnataka (319), Jharkhand (414): Agriculture and mineral resources.

    • Maharashtra (365), Gujarat (308): Urbanization and industrialization.

  4. Areas of High Density: These areas have population densities ranging from 501 to 1000 people per square kilometer, shaped by factors such as:

    • Punjab (550), Haryana (573): Highly developed agriculture.

    • Tamil Nadu (555): Combination of agriculture and industries.

    • Kerala (859): Coastal fertile plains.

    • Uttar Pradesh (828): Fertile plains.

  5. Areas of Very High Density: This category includes regions with over 1000 individuals per square kilometer, influenced by factors such as:

    • Delhi (11,297): Coastal fertile plains, migration, and urbanization.

    • Bihar (1102): Fertile plains.

    • West Bengal (1029): Fertile plains and industrialization.

    • Additional UTs in this category: Lakshadweep (2013), Daman & Diu (2169), Puducherry (2548), Chandigarh (9592).

In summary, population density plays a pivotal role in understanding demographic distribution, and its variations can be attributed to diverse geographical and socio-economic factors across Indian states and UTs.

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