Economic Life of Indus Valley Civilization
Economic Life of Indus Valley Civilization: The economic life of the Indus Valley Civilization was based on agriculture, animal husbandry, trade, and industry. Agriculture was the main occupation of the inhabitants of the Indus Civilization. Along with agriculture, animal husbandry and trade were the mainstays of the economy.
Every year the Indus and its tributaries brought fertilized soil, which was cultivated using tools and implements made of stone and bronze.
The economic life of Indus Valley Civilization or Harappan Civilization—
- Wheat and barley were mainly cultivated. It is known from the remains of cotton textiles that the Indus residents (inhabitants of the Indus civilization) also used to cultivate cotton.
- The inhabitants of this place started the cultivation of cotton for the first time in the world.
- The farmers of this civilization used to produce more grain than they needed. Therefore, granaries were built in the city to store food grains where food items were kept safe.
- Along with agriculture, animal husbandry was also done in abundance. Animals such as bulls, cows, buffaloes, sheep, goats, pigs, dogs, rabbits, deer, and humpbacked Taurus were reared. The humpbacked Taurus is found in abundance on seals.
- Bullocks and buffaloes were used for transport in bullock carts and buffalo carts. Through this, the people of the Indus civilization used to transport from one place to another.
- Evidences of the Saindhav residents were familiar with the horse has been received from Surkotda, Lothal, and Rangpur. Ashwa- asthi (horse bones) have been found from Surkotada and horse sculptures ( terracotta horse figurines) have been found from Lothal and Rangpur.
- Apart from agriculture and animal husbandry, industry and trade were also the mainstays of the economy, in which textile manufacturing was the main industry of this period.
- Seals and objects of the Indus Valley Civilization have been found in West Asia and Egypt, from which it is known that this civilization had trade relations with these countries. Most of the seals are made in Selkhadi.
- It is known from the writings received from Sumer (present-day southern Iraq) that the merchants of Sumer used to trade with the merchants of Meluha (Indus region) by bartering.
- The people of the Harappan civilization did not use seals or metal coins in trade. All exchanges were done by barter i.e. goods were taken and given in exchange for goods (goods).
- Bartering was controlled by weights. These weights were generally made from a stone called chert. These were of cuboidal shape without any marks. The scales of scales made of metal have also been found.
- Lothal was a Harappan port city, from where evidence of rice cultivation has been found.