Geological Structure of Madhya Pradesh | MP General Knowledge

Geological Structure of Madhya Pradesh | MP General Knowledge
Posted on 23-04-2022

Geological Structure of MP

The state is structurally a part of the peninsular plateau. The Peninsular Plateau has never been completely submerged in geological history. Only for some time, part of this plateau was covered in shallow seas. Due to this, the geological structure of different periods has developed on the peninsular plateau.

Most of Madhya Pradesh is a part of the peninsular plateau, the geological structure of different periods is seen here.

The geological structure of the following periods is found in Madhya Pradesh

  1. Archaean Mahakalpa 
  2. Arya Group
  3. Cretaceous Kalp 
  4. Tertiary rock group

Archaean Mahakalpa in MP

  • The rocks of the Proto-Great Age are the first hard rocks on the earth. Fossil remains are not found in these early rocksbecause life did not develop on Earth at that time.
  • Rocks of this age are found in the form of Bundelkhand Nice in the Bundelkhand region of Madhya Pradesh. Evidence of proto-megalithic rocks in this area is found in the form of pink granitecob, and dyke in narrow hills.
  • The rocks of the Proto Mahakalpa located in Madhya Pradesh have been formed by the cooling of liquid lava and deposition of shallow areas. Due to the high regional and thermal metamorphism of these two types of rocks, their differentiation is difficult.


Dharwad Group in MP

  • The rocks of the Dharwad group were formed by the material released from the erosion of the rocks of the Proto-Megal Age. Due to their metamorphosis due to extreme heat and pressure, these rocks are mostly found in the form of phylliteschist, and slate. Due to the erosion of ancient rocks, fossils are also not found in them.
  • The rocks of the Dharwad group are mainly found in JabalpurBalaghat, and Chhindwara in Madhya Pradesh.
  • In Jabalpur, the fibrous dolomite limestone (marble) of this rock group is found in the Narmada valley.
  • The Dharwad rock group in Chhindwara is found in the form of the Saunsar Series and Sikoli Series. Manganese deposits are found in it.
  • In Balaghat and other adjoining parts, the Dharwad rocks are present in the form of the Chilpi series, in which layers of very thick slate and phyllite are found.


Puran Sangh in MP

The rocks of the Dharwad group, over a period of time, were transformed into old folded mountains through mountain building action. By the action of the cycle of erosion, the folded mountains gradually turned into flat plains. The rocks of the old union were formed by the deposition of rocks of later periods in these flat plains.

Classification of Old Union rocks

On the basis of the time period, the rocks of the Old Union have been divided into two parts.

Kaddapa Shail Samuh

  • The Kadapa rock group is older than the Vindhyan rock groupThe rocks of the Kadapa rock group are highly broken and metamorphic. These rocks are mainly found in the plain of Chhattisgarh. But their expansion is also seen in BijawarPanna, and Gwalior of Madhya Pradesh. Therefore, these rocks are found in the form of rock jasper, porcelainite, and hornstone on the north-western border of Madhya Pradesh. The diamond is found in the Bijawar series of the Lower Cuddapah rock group.


Vindhyan rock group

  • The thickness of the rocks of the Vindhya rock group in Madhya Pradesh is about 4,200 m. These aquatic types of rocks have not been affected by interplanetary actions. In Madhya Pradesh, these rocks extend from Rewa in the northwest of Son to Rajasthan in the west of Chambal.


The rocks of the Kadapa group in the state are divided into two parts-

01- Lower  Vindhya

  • The rocks of the Lower Vindhya Group extend from northeast to west of the Narmada in the Vindhyachal range. Their expansion is also seen in Son valley and Bhima valley. In the Son valley, these rocks are found in the form of 914 meters of thick limestonerock, and sandstone.


02- Upper Vindhyan

  • The extension of the rocks of this group is in the form of the KaimurRewa, and Bhander series in the north of Narmada. In these rocks, some traces of small animals and plants are found in small quantities. Timber is found in abundance in this group of rockswhich have been used in the construction of historical buildings in northern India.


Arya Group

Under the Aryan group, from the Upper Carboniferous to the Very New Age are included. In the Upper Carboniferous era, the Deccan plateau was affected by inter-terracial activitiesbut this region remained untouched by the mountain formation processbut due to excessive stretching, cracks occurred in between, and narrowlong terrain got submerged under them. Freshwater lakes were formed in these narrow parts. Later on, the rocks of the Gondwana rock group were formed from the deposited materials in these lakes.

Gondwana  Shale Group Gondwana Shale Group

  • Rocks of the Gondwana rock group are found mainly in the Sapura region and Baghelkhand plateau in Madhya Pradesh, where these rock groups are distributed in the form of a semi-circle from Sidhi in the north to Raigarh in the south.
  • There is uniformity in the rocks of this group. Their edges are confused.
  • There is a lot of variation in the formation of the Gondwana rock group, in which the layers of thick and fine sandclay, etc. continuously change each other.


The rocks of the Gondwana rock group in Madhya Pradesh are divided into three parts-

1-Lower  Gondwana Shale Group

  • The Lower Gondwana rock group is known as Talchir.
  • It is mainly found in the areas of Son-Mahanadi valley and Satpura.
  • From their 10-122 meters thick texture, geologists have concluded that they have been transported by both snow and water. It also concludes that during that period it was under the influence of the Cold Age.
  • The Pench Ghati and Mohapani coalfields come under the Talchir rock group.


2- Middle  Gondwana Shale Group

  • In Madhya Pradesh, proper development of the Central Gondwana rock group has taken place in the Satpura region. 
  • Rocks of this group are found in the four strata of the Satpura region – Panchet, Panchmarhi, Denwa, and Bagra.
  • In the Pachmarhi region, huge thick-layered sandstone is found. It is yellow to red in color due to the excess of iron in it. There is a cover of Denwa on top of Pachmarhi rock.


3- Upper Gondwana Shale Group

  • Upper Gondwana rock groups are found in both the Satpura and Baghelkhand regions. 
  • It consists mostly of sandstone and rock. Along with this, layers of coal and layers of vegetable matter and limestone are also found in it.
  • In the Satpura region, it is known as Chaugan and Jabalpur level.


Cretaceous Kalp in MP 

  • Evidence of Cretaceous Kalpa in Madhya Pradesh is found in Narmada Valley.
  • In the Narmada valley, rock groups formed by the deposition of rivers and estuaries are foundwhich are called the tiger series.
  • The relatively new deposits scattered in other parts of Madhya Pradesh are called Lamta series. Among them, silica mixed limestoneclay mixed sandstonegrit, and clay are the main rocks. 
  • Some fossil remains are also found in these rocks.


Tertiary rock group

  • In the Tertiary rock group, the Gondwana continent broke up and split into small parts and the part between them was submerged under the ocean. At this time the Deccan plateau got its present shape and the vast deposit of the Tethys Sea rose up in the form of a folded mountain to form the Himalaya Mountains. The effect of these interplanetary activities was also on southern Madhya Pradesh.


Evidence in different eras and their Madhya Pradesh 

Era     Evidence in Madhya Pradesh

Proto Mahakalpa
  Pink Granite of Bundelkhand,  NiceSill,  Dyke
Dharwad Group   Chilpi range of Balaghat , Saunsar range of 
Chhindwara Bijawar range of Bundelkhand
old union   Panna ,  Bijawar range of Gwalior Kaimur ,  Bhander ,  Rewa range


Dravidian Union  

Evidence has not been found in Madhya Pradesh.



Aryan group  

Extensive coal valley in Satpura and Baghelkhand




TigerLametaVolcanic bed of Malwa plateau



tertiary group   

Narmada Son Valley


Thank You