History of Bengal
History of Bengal: The history of Bengal is even older than the beginning of the Mughal period in the sixteenth century. Where many Muslim kings, sultans, and Nawabs of Bengal ruled. Questions related to these are asked in competitive examinations, keeping in mind the information about the history of Bengal has been given here.
Nawab of Bengal
Murshid Quli Khan (1700-1727 AD)
- Aurangzeb made Murshid Quli Khan (earlier a Hindu Brahmin) the Diwan of Bengal in 1700 AD.
- After the death of Aurangzeb in 1707 AD, a dispute started between Murshid Quli Khan and Ajimushshan (grandson of Aurangzeb). Due to this dispute, Murshid Quli Khan shifted his capital from Dhaka to Murshidabad. Along with this, it also stopped the annual tax paid to the Mughal Sultanate.
- There were three major revolts during its time –
- Uday Narayan, Sita Narayan's rebellion.
- Revolt of Sujad Khan.
- Najad Khan's rebellion.
- In 1717 AD, the Mughal emperor Farooq Shir made it the Subedar of Bengal.
- In 1719, Orissa was merged with Bengal and the Diwani of Orissa also came under Murshid Quli Khan.
- Murshid Quli Khan was the father of the monopoly system. Under this system, loans were given to farmers to increase their income.
- From this period the hereditary system of governance started in Bengal.
Shuja Uddin-Mohammed-Khan (1727-1739 AD)
- After the death of Murshid Quli Khan in 1727, his son-in-law Shuja Uddin-Muhammad-Khan became the Nawab of Bengal. He was earlier the Deputy Subedar of Orissa.
- In the year 1732, Bihar was also merged with Bengal.
- This made Alivardi Khan the Deputy Subedar of Bihar in 1732 AD. Later on, this proved to be the biggest mistake of Shuja Uddin-Mohammed-Khan.
Sarfaraz Khan (1739-1740 AD)
- After the death of Shuja Uddin-Mohammed-Khan in 1739, his son Sarfaraz Khan became the next Nawab.
- He assumed the title of Haiderjung (Alam-uddaula-Haiderganj).
- Sarfaraz Khan was an inept and weak ruler.
- In 1740, Alivardi Khan, the Deputy Subedar of Bengal, revolted with the help of his associates Haji Ahmed and Jagat Seth.
- In 1740 AD, Sarfaraz Khan was defeated and died in the battle of Giria between Sarfaraz and Alivardi Khan.
Alivardi Khan (1740-1756 AD)
- After the battle of Giria, Alivardi Khan became the next Nawab of Bengal in 1740 AD.
- As soon as he became the Nawab of Bengal, he assumed the title of "Mirza Muhammad Khan".
- Alivardi Khan had sent a tribute of Rs 2 crore to the then Mughal emperor Mohammad Shah Rangeela. In return, the Mughal emperor issued a manifesto to accept Alvivardi Khan as the Nawab of Bengal.
- Alivardi Khan was the first Nawab of Bengal who was officially declared the first Nawab of Bengal by the Mughals.
- During his reign, his struggle with the Marathas continued every year from 1740 to 1751 AD, in which Alivardi Khan suffered significant losses. Finally made a peace treaty with the Marathas in 1751 AD, under which-
- Alivardi Khan will give 12 lakh rupees to the Marathas every year as Chauth tax.
- Orissa will be handed over to the Marathas.
- It gave the British the right to trade in Bengal during his rule but did not give fortifications and the right to keep an army.
- Alivardi Khan had no son. During his lifetime, it had chosen Siraj-ud-Daulah, the son of his youngest daughter, as his successor.
Siraj-ud-Daula (1756-1757 AD)
- After the death of Alivardi Khan, Siraj-ud-daula became the next Nawab of Bengal at the age of 23.
- As soon as Siraj-ud-Daula became the Nawab, it started opposing, there were mainly 2 groups among those who opposed –
- Ghasiti Begum, the eldest daughter of Alivardi Khan, who was married to the Nawab of Dhaka, wanted to become the Nawab of Bengal herself. It was supported by its two Diwans Rajballabh and Krishnaballabh.
- Shaukatjung, son of Alivardi Khan's second daughter (who was married to the Nawab of Purnia).
- Due to this rebellion, in 1756 AD, the war of Manihari took place between Siraj-ud-daula and Shaukatjung, in which Siraj-ud-daula won and Shaukatjung died.
- During this period the Seven Years' War was going on between the British and the French. During this war, both of them started to fortify their companies.
- Siraj-ud-daula opposed the captivity of this fort and issued an order to stop it immediately. As a result, the French Company stopped the fortification, but the English Company refused to stop the fortification.
- Along with this, the English company was also misusing the decree "Dastak" given by the Mughal emperor Farooq Shir in 1717 AD.
- The fortifications in Bengal and the misuse of "Dastak" became the main reason for the Battle of Plassey later on.