History of Uttarakhand
Important questions and answers related to the history of Uttarakhand are available here. These questions and answers are very important from the point of view of a competitive examination. Here you can see the information about the history of Uttarakhand.
- Amoghabhuti was the most powerful ruler of which dynasty? - Kuninda dynasty
- Who had the right over the Terai areas of the state after the Shakas? - of the Kushanas
- After the Maukharis, the power of which external dynasty was established over Uttarakhand? - Vardhanvansh
- Which dynasty of Uttarakhand is considered the first historical dynasty? - Kartikeyapur dynasty
- What was the official language of Kartikeyapur kings? - Sanskrit
- Which was the first capital of the Panwar rulers of Garhwal? - Chandpurgarhi
- By whom was the Baijnath temple built? – by Bhudev
- Who was the founder of Parmar dynasty? – Kanakpal
- Which Nepali ruler invaded the Kumaon region in 1223 AD? – Krachaldev
- Baj Bahadur Chand belonged to which dynasty? - Chand dynasty
- What was the royal emblem of the Chand kings? - cow
- Who was the last ruler of Chand dynasty? - Mahendra Chand
- Who gave the title of "Shah" to the Parmar rulers? - by Lodis
- When was Garhwal first attacked by Gorkhas? – in 1791
- When did Gorkhas establish their rule in Kumaon? - in 1790
- When did Gorkhas establish their rule in Garhwal? - in 1803
- When was the Almora Congress established? - in 1912
- By whom was Kausani called the "Switzerland of India"? - by Gandhi
- When was the demand for a separate state of Uttaranchal first made? - in 1938
- When was the Uttarakhand Kranti Dal formed? – 25 July 1979
History of Uttarakhand
The history of Uttarakhand is as old as that of mankind. Here many inscriptions, copper plates, and ancient Remains have also been found. Which shows the antiquity of Garhwal. It is known from the article written on a rock in the Shiva temple in Gopeshnar that the movement of travelers has been going on in this area for several hundred years. The civilization and culture of this place have been described in Markandeya Purana, Shiva Purana, Meghdoot, and Raghuvansh epic. Copper plates from the time of Boudh, Maurya, and Ashoka have also been found here. This land has been described in ancient texts as Devbhoomi or Swargadwar. The holy Ganges touches the ground at Haridwar. This is Mayapur described in ancient religious texts. The Ganges descends here in the material world. Before this, she wanders in the Sur-river Devbhoomi. Every form of Shiva also resides in this land. So also Badrinarayan in Hari form. This origin area of Mother Ganga has been the real play area of that deity culture, which in the form of mythological stories are still alive in the form of faith and faith in the psyche of pious people. Among the ancient castes of Uttarakhand, special mention is found of Kirat, Yaksha, Gandharva, Nag, Khas, Nath, etc. A class of Aryans who came to Garhwal called Khasas (Khasiyas). The Kol Bhils, which were castes, were later called Harijans after attaining independence. People from different regions of the country came to visit Badrinarayan as a traveler, many of them settled here and made Uttarakhand their permanent residence. Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, Muslims, Sikhs, and Christians all started living here. Mainly this area is inhabited by Brahmin and Kshatriya caste people. After the formation of Uttarakhand state, Haridwar, With the merger of Udham Singh Nagar and some other areas, there has been an increase in the people of other castes. The biggest feature of this area is that if socialism is visible on the ground, then it is seen in this area, so the culture here is considered among the best cultures in the world. Historical details of Garhwal of the seventh century are available. Around 688 AD, Chandpur was the kingdom of King Bhanupratap at Garhi (13 miles east of Karnprayag in the present Chamoli district). He had two daughters. The first daughter was married to the prince Rajpal of Kumaon and the younger one was married to the prince Kanakpal of the city of Dhara, whose dynasty went ahead. Raja Bhanupratap's kingdom was in Garhi (13 miles east of Karnprayag in the present Chamoli district). He had two daughters. The first daughter was married to the prince Rajpal of Kumaon and the younger one was married to the prince Kanakpal of the city of Dhara, whose dynasty went ahead. Raja Bhanupratap's kingdom was in Garhi (13 miles east of Karnprayag in the present Chamoli district). He had two daughters. The first daughter was married to the prince Rajpal of Kumaon and the younger one was married to the prince Kanakpal of the city of Dhara, whose dynasty went ahead. Raja Bhanupratap's kingdom was in Garhi (13 miles east of Karnprayag in the present Chamoli district). He had two daughters. The first daughter was married to the prince Rajpal of Kumaon and the younger one was married to the prince Kanakpal of the city of Dhara, whose dynasty went ahead. Raja Bhanupratap's kingdom was in Garhi (13 miles east of Karnprayag in the present Chamoli district). He had two daughters. The first daughter was married to the prince Rajpal of Kumaon and the younger one was married to the prince Kanakpal of the city of Dhara, whose dynasty went ahead.
In ancient times, Uttarakhand was ruled by many castes, some of which are prominent as follows
Kuninda ruler -
- Kunind was the first political power to rule Uttarakhand.
- It is known from the Kalsi inscription of Ashoka that Kuninda was initially under the Mauryas.
- Amodhabhuti was the most powerful king of the Kuninda dynasty.
- After the death of Amodhabhuti, the Shako took control of the plains of Uttarakhand, after the Shako, the Kushanas took control of the Terai.
- Evidence of the rule of Yaudheyo is also found in Uttarakhand, their currency has been found from Jaunsar Babar and Lansdowne (Pauri).
- The 'Badwala Yagya Vedika' was built by a king named Sheelvarman, some scholars consider Sheelvarman as Kuninda and some as Yaudheya.
Kartapur State –
- Kunind was also the founder of Kartapur state. Kartapur included Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, and the northern part of Rohilkhand.
- After defeating Kunindo of Kartapur, the Nagas took control of Uttarakhand.
- The Maukharis of Nago's Bark Kannoj ruled Uttarakhand.
- The last ruler of the Maukhari dynasty was Grihavarma, Harshavardhana killed it and took the rule into his hands.
- During the reign of Harshavardhana, the Chinese traveler Waensang came on a tour of Uttarakhand.
Kartikeyapur Dynasty –
- After the death of Harsha, Uttarakhand was ruled by many small Shakyas, in this 700 AD. The Karthikeyapur dynasty was established in the year 700 AD, more than three families of this dynasty ruled Uttarakhand. He ruled for about 300 years till 1030 AD.
- This dynasty is said to be the first historical dynasty of Uttarakhand.
- Initially, the capital of the Kartikeyapur dynasty was at a place called Kartikeyapur near Joshimath (Chamoli), later the capital was made Baijnath (Bageshwar).
- The first ruler of this dynasty was Basantdev, no information is found about the subsequent kings of Basantdev after this information is available about the rule of Kharpardev. Kharpardev was a contemporary of King Yashovarman of Kannauj, after this, his son became the king of Kalyan, of the Kharpardev dynasty. The last ruler was Tribhuvan Raj.
- In the Nalanda inscription, information is received about the attack on Garhwal by Dharmapala, the Pala ruler of Bengal.
- After Nimbar, his son Ishtagan became the ruler, he tried to tie the whole of Uttarakhand in one thread, and built Navdurga, Mahismardini, Lakulish, and Nataraja temples in Jageshwar.
- After Ishtagana, his son Lalitshur Dev became the ruler and after Lalitshur Dev his son Bhudev became the ruler, he opposed Buddhism and helped in the construction of Baijnath temple.
- Salodaditya's son Ichchardev founded the Salodaditya dynasty in the Karthikeyapur dynasty.
- Adi Guru Shankaracharya came to Uttarakhand during the Kartikeyapur reign, he got the Badrinath and Kedarnath temples renovated. AD 820 In Kedarnath he gave up his life.
- The official language of the Karthikeyapur rulers was Sanskrit and the local language was Pali.
In the history of the medieval period, we will study about the Katyuri rule, the Chand dynasty, and the Parmar (Pawar) dynasty of Garhwal.
- In the medieval period, Kumaon was ruled by Katyuris, we get information about it from local folk tales and Jagar, after the Karthikeyapur dynasty, the Katyuris were ruled in Kumaon.
- From 740 AD to 1000 AD, Garhwal and Kumaon were ruled by three families of the Katyuri dynasty, and their capital was Kartikeyapur (Joshimath).
- Asantidev established the Asantidev dynasty in the state of Katyuri and established his capital at Joshimath in Ranchulakot.
- The last ruler of the Katyuri dynasty was Brahmadev, it was a tyrannical ruler, in the wake it has been called Veeramdev.
- According to the folklore of Jiyarani, in 1398, Timur Lang attacked Haridwar and Brahmadev confronted him after this attack, the Katyuri dynasty came to an end.
- In 1191, King Ashokchala of western Nepal attacked the Katyuri kingdom and occupied some part of it.
- In 1223 AD, Nepal's ruler Kachaldev attacked Kumaon and took the Katyuri rule under his control.
Chand dynasty of Kumaon
- The founder of the Chand dynasty in Kumaon was Somchand who ascended the throne in 700 AD.
- In Kumaon, Chand and Katyuri were contemporaries in the beginning and they fought for power which Chand was victorious in the end. The Chands made Champawat their capital. Initially, only the areas around Champawat were under them, but in the present Nainital, Bageshwar, Pithoragarh, Almora, etc. areas became under them.
- Due to the expansion of the kingdom, Bhishmachand shifted the capital from Champawat to Almora, which was completed in the time of Kalyanchand III (1560).
- The most powerful king of this dynasty was Garuda Chand.
- During the time of Kalyan Chand IV, Kumaon was attacked by Rohillas. And the famous poet 'Shiva' composed Kalyan Chandrodayam.
- The practice of appointment of village headmen and land fixation started in Kumaon during the Chand regime itself.
- The state symbol of the few kings was the cow.
- In 1790 AD, Gorkhas of Nepal defeated Chand Raja Mahendra Chand in the battle of Hawalbagh and took control of Kumaon, with this the Chand dynasty came to an end in Kumaon.
Parmar (Panwar) dynasty of Garhwal –
- By the 9th century, Garhwal was ruled by 54 small and big Thakuri rulers, the most powerful of which was Raja Bhanupratap of Chandpur Gad, in 887 AD the ruler of Dhar (Gujarat) Kanakpal came on pilgrimage, Bhanupratap welcomed it and welcomed his daughter. got married to him.
- Kanakpal laid the foundation of the Parmar dynasty in Chandpurgarh (Chamoli) in 888 AD, from 888 AD to 1949 AD, there were a total of 60 kings in the Parmar dynasty.
- The kings of this dynasty were initially the princes of Karthikeyapur kings but were established as an independent political power in the bar.
- Ajaypal, the 37th king of this dynasty, conquered all the Gahapatis and unified the Garhwal land. It established its capital in Chandpurgarh first in Devalgarh and then in Srinagar in 1517 AD.
- The Parmar rulers were awarded the title of Shah by Bahlod Lodi, the ruler of the Lodi dynasty, first Balabhadra Shah added Shah in front of his name.
- In 1636 AD, the Mughal commander Nawazat Khan attacked the Doon-valley, and the then protected Queen of Garhwal state, Karnavati, with her valor, caught the Mughal soldiers and cut their noses, after this incident, Queen Karnavati was given the title of "Nakkati Queen". became famous by name.
- Aurangzeb was enraged by the fact that the Parmara king Prathvipati Shah had given shelter to Shuleman Shikoh, the son of the Mughal prince Darashikoh.
- After defeating the Chandos of Kumaon in 1790 AD, he also attacked Garhwal in 1791 AD but was defeated. The Raja of Garhwal imposed an annual tax of Rs 25000 under the treaty with the Gorkhas and took a promise that they would not attack Garhwal again, but in 1803 AD, under the leadership of Amar Singh Thapa and Hastidal Chautaria, the Gorkhas attacked the earthquake-prone Garhwal. Tax occupied a considerable part of them.
- On 14 May 1804, Pradhuman Shah was killed in a battle with the Gorkhas at Khudbura Maidan of Dehradun, thus the entire Garhwal and Kumaon became the possession of Nepalese Gorkhas.
- Kunwar Pritamshah, a son of Pradhuman Shah, was imprisoned by the Gorkhas and sent to Kathmandu, while the other son Sudarshan Shah tried to become independent by staying in Haridwar, and on his demand, the British Governor General Lord Hastings sent the British army against the Gorkhas in October 1814 and in 1815. Got Garhwal independent, but due to the British being unable to pay the cost of fighting, the Garhwal king had to give his kingdom to the British in agreement.
- Sudarshan Shah established Tehri Garhwal from his capital Srinagar on 28 December 1815. Tehri continued to rule the state and after its merger with India, Tehri state was made a district of Uttar Pradesh on 1 August 1949.
- Many poems were composed during the period of the Panwar rulers, the oldest of which is Manodaya Kavya, which was composed by Bharat Kavi.
Gorkha rule and British rule in the history of the modern period of Uttarakhand –
Gorkha rule -
- Gorkhas belonged to Nepal, Gorkhas defeated Chand Raja and captured Almora in 1790.
- After capturing Kumaon, he attacked Garhwal in 1791 but was defeated, and on February 1803, going against the treaty, Gorkhas again attacked Garhwal under the leadership of Amar Singh Thapa and Hastidal Chautaria and succeeded.
- On 14 May 1804, there was a war between the Garhwal King Pradhumna Shah and the Gorkhas in the Khudbuda Maidan of Dehradun, and the Garhwal King was martyred.
- In 1814 AD, Garhwal Raj became free after being defeated in a war with the British in Garhwal, now only the rule of Gorkhas remained in Kumaon.
- Colonel Nichols and Colonel Gardner conquered Almora of Kumaon in April 1815 and General Ochterloni on May 15, 1815, from Veer Gorkha Sardar Amar Singh Thapa, won the fort of Malow.
- On 27 April 1815, under the treaty between Colonel Gardner and the Gorkha ruler Bamshah, the power of Kumaon was handed over to the British.
- The reign of Gorkhas in Kumaon and Garhwal lasted for 25 and 10.5 years respectively.
British rule -
- After taking control of Kumaon till April 1815, the British made all other areas except Tehri a non-regulation province and made it a part of North Eastern Province, and appointed Colonel Gardner as the first commissioner of this region.
- For some time Bard Kumaon district was formed and Dehradun was included in the Saharanpur district in 1817.
- In 1840, the headquarters of British Garhwal was shifted from Srinagar to Pauri and a new district named Pauri Garhwal was formed.
- Nainital was made the headquarters of the Kumaon division in 1854.
- In 1891, Kumaon was divided into two districts named Almora and Nainital, and till independence, there were only 3 districts in Kumaon (Almora, Nainital, Pauri Garhwal) and Tehri Garhwal as a princely state.
- In 1891, the non-regulation province system was abolished from Uttarakhand.
- In 1902, the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh was formed and Uttarakhand was included in it.
- In 1904, Uttarakhand was given the name of Hill State in the Nainital Gazetteer.