After Babur's death, Babur's eldest son Humayun sat on the throne of the Mughal Empire. Humayun has crowned the Mughal Sultanate at the age of 30 in Agra. Humayun was also known as Nasir-ud-din Muhammad . Humayun divided his Mughal empire among his three brothers ( Kamran, Askari, and Hindal ), which historians consider Humayun's big mistake.
Humayun first attacked Kalinjar in 1531 AD. Where the ruler was Rudradev. Humayun defeated him and captured the fort, but made a treaty with Rudradev and removed his army from there without taking possession of the fort. Historians have considered this as Humayun's second big mistake.
From the time of Babur, the biggest enemy of the Mughal Sultanate was the Afghans. Therefore Humayun attacked Sher Khan in 1532 AD, this war took place at a place called Dohariya. In this war, the Afghan side was led by Mahmud Lodi. The Afghans had to face defeat in this war. And Humayun stormed the fort of Chunar and took it into his possession, which at that time was the fort of Sher Khan, the ruler of Afghan origin, Sher Khan also known as Sher Shah Suri. But due to Sher Khan surrendering and accepting Humayun's submission, Humayun returned his fort to him. As a result, Sher Khan along with his son Qutub Khan sent an Afghan contingent to Humayun's service.
Meanwhile, the queen of Chittor and the queen's mother Karnavati (Karmavati) sent a rakhi to Humayun and pleaded for rescue from Bahadur Shah, the ruler of Gujarat. Bahadur Shah was an ambitious ruler, he had already established his suzerainty over Chittor by defeating the rulers of Malwa (1531), Raisin (1532), and the Sisodia dynasty. Humayun was already upset seeing the increasing power of Bahadur Shah. Therefore, in 1535 AD, there was a war between Humayun and Bahadur Shah in Mandsaur, in which Humayun defeated Bahadur Shah, but this victory of Humayun could not last long, soon Bahadur Shah returned to Gujarat with the help of the Portuguese. And again took control of Malwa.
On the other hand, the power of Sher Khan was increasing, so Humayun attacked the fort of Chunargarh for the second time in 1538 AD, but even after besieging the fort for 6 months, Humayun could not succeed. Eventually, Rumi Khan, an artilleryman in the army of Bahadur Shah, the ruler of Gujarat, who had joined Humayun after the Mandsaur war, was able to capture Humayun's fort due to Rumi Khan's diplomatic effort.
After this, in 1538 AD, Humayun invaded Bengal and took control of the Mughal Empire there. But while returning from there, on June 26, 1539, Humayun was defeated badly between Humayun and Sher Khan (Sher Shah Suri) at a place called Chausa near the Karmanasha river. Pleased with this victory, Sher Khan assumed the title of Al-Sultan-Adil or Sher Shah and issued coins in his name, and also got Khutba (speech of praise) recited.
After this, again on May 17, 1540, another war was fought between Humayun and Sher Khan in Kanauj, in which Sher Khan won, and once again the rule of the Afghans was re-established over Delhi, where before the Mughal Empire, the Afghans It was the rule of Delhi Sultanate.
Losing in the battle of Kanauj, Humayun reached Iran after spending some time in Agra, Lahore, and Sindh, and from 1540 to 1555 lived like a wanderer for about 15 years. But before leaving his country, Humayun married Hamida Begum, the daughter of his brother Hindal's spiritual master 'Shiamir', on August 29, 1541, and Hamida gave birth to a son after some time, who was known as Akbar. Later on, he became the greatest ruler of the Mughal Empire.
In 1544 AD, Humayun took refuge in Shah Tahmasp of Iran and started preparing for war. Humayun captured Kabul and Kandahar from his brother Kamran and after 15 years in exile, Humayun, with the help of his trusted general Bairam Khan, fought at Machhiwara on 15 May and Sher Khan (Sher Shah) in the battle of Sirhind on 22 June 1555. After defeating the descendants of Suri, Sikandar Shah Suri once again occupied Delhi and extended the Mughal Empire.
But for the second time, Humayun could not enjoy the pleasure of throne and kingship for long. On January 27, 1556, Humayun died after falling from the ladder of the library named Shermandal of Delhi's Fort Dinpanah. Humayun was buried in Delhi itself. Humayun founded a new city named ' Din-Panaah ' in 1535 AD on the banks of river Yamuna in Delhi. After the death of Humayun, his son Akbar sat on the throne of the Mughal Empire.
Historian Lenpool, commenting about Humayun, has said that " Humayun became free from this life as soon as he fell, in the same way as he continued in life while falling. ,
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