Indian Independence Act 1947: The Indian Independence Act 1947, was introduced on 4 July 1947 by the British Prime Minister Clement Richard Attlee in the British Parliament on July 18, 1947. Passed in 1947. It was announced by British Prime Minister Clement Attlee on 20 February 1947 that British rule in India would end on 30 June 1947.
The main points regarding the Indian Independence Act 1947 are as follows:
- According to the Indian Independence Act 1947, after the end of British rule, the responsibility of power will be handed over to the Indian hands.
- On this announcement, there was an agitation by the Muslim League and there was talk of partition of India.
- On June 3, 1947, the Viceroy Lord Mountbatten presented a plan of partition, which was called the Mountbatten Plan. It clarified that the constitution made by the Constituent Assembly constituted in 1946 would not be applicable in those areas which would not accept it.
- This plan was accepted by Congress and the Muslim League.
- Thus the Indian Independence Act, of 1947 was made and implemented.
- The partition of India created two independent Dominions (sovereign nations) India and Pakistan, which had the freedom to separate from the British Commonwealth.
- In this, the office of Viceroy was abolished and in its place, the post of Governor-General was created in both the Dominion States, over which Britain had no control.
- The Constituent Assemblies of these two Dominion States were given the power to make the constitution of their countries and adopt the constitution of any country for that.
- The assemblies also had the power to legislate to abolish any British law. He even had the right to repeal the Independence Act.
- In this, the power was given to the Constituent Assemblies of both the Dominion States that they can form assemblies for their respective areas till the new constitution is framed and implemented. Any Act passed by the British Parliament after August 15, 1947, shall apply to both Dominions until both Dominions make laws to comply with that law.
- This law abolished the post of India Secretary in Britain.
- It also announced the end of British sovereignty over Indian princely states with effect from August 15, 1947. With this, the British intervention in settlement relations in the tribal area also ended.
- In this, the Indian princely states were given the freedom that they could join with the Indian Dominion or remain independent.
- This act provided for the governance of each Dominion under the Government of India Act-1935 to run the government from their provincial services until a new constitution was made. However, both the Dominion states had the right to amend this law.
- Under this, the Governor-General of India and the provincial governors were appointed as constitutional heads of the states, who had to act on the advice of the Council of Ministers of the states on all matters.
- This act abolished the term "Emperor of India" from the royal title.
- The system of making reservations in appointments in civil services by the "Secretary of State for India" was abolished. But the civil service employees before August 15, 1947, will continue to get the same facilities, which they were getting earlier.
- On the midnight of 14-15 August 1947, British rule in India came to an end and all powers were transferred to the two newly independent Dominions of India and Pakistan. Lord Mountbatten became the first Governor-General of the new Dominion of India.
- Lord Mountbatten administered the oath to Jawaharlal Nehru as the Prime Minister of India.
- The Constituent Assembly formed in 1946 was accepted as the Parliament of independent India.