Inorganic compounds (or inorganic molecules) are those that are formed by the combination of metal and non-metal elements of the periodic table. They generally do not have carbon, and when they do, it is not a major element.
They receive this name because they have no biological origin. That is, they are inert matter that normally comes from the earth's crust. They can also be generated from natural phenomena.
Inorganic compounds can be formed from metal and nonmetal elements by ionic bonds. These types of bonds occur by the transfer of electrons from metals to non-metals. Eventually, they can be formed by covalent bonds, which are only established between non-metal elements. , instead of transferring electrons, share them.
Although it can be said that the sum of metal and non-metal elements represents the majority of the periodic table, inorganic compounds are outnumbered by organic compounds.
Some examples of inorganic compounds in everyday life are water (H 2 O); salt (sodium chloride, NaCl); lime (oxocalcium or calcium oxide, CaO); ammonia (NH 3 ); carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ).
Organic compounds are the subject matter of inorganic chemistry.
Inorganic compounds are very varied among themselves. Within their variety, they share certain characteristics that differentiate them from organic compounds.
The properties of inorganic compounds refer to their behavior against certain factors. The best-known properties are:
The most common way to classify the types of organic compounds is according to their functional groups.
It brings together the compounds formed by the union of oxygen with another element. They are subdivided into basic and acidic oxides.
They are those that are formed by combinations of water with basic oxides. Therefore, in their structure, they show the presence of OH - . For example, sodium hydroxide (NaOH), is used in the manufacture of textiles, crayons, paints, and paper.
They arise from the combination of hydrogen with elements or groups of high electronegativity. They are divided into:
They are those that result from combining an acid with a base.
It usually refers to compounds formed by hydrogen atoms with any metal or non-metal element of the periodic table. For example, sodium hydride (NaH).
Next, we present a list with examples of inorganic compounds present in everyday life, pointing out their origin or their best-known uses.
The main difference between organic and inorganic compounds is in their origin. While organic compounds have a biological origin, inorganic ones almost always come from the earth's crust, such as water. However, some organic compounds can now be obtained artificially in laboratories, such as synthetic fibers or plastics.
Precisely because of their biological origin, organic molecules are much more numerous than inorganic ones.
They also differ in the number of elements involved. organic compounds, only carbon participants, whose presence is constant, hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus. Instead, inorganic compounds can combine all of the metal and nonmetal elements on the periodic table.
Organic compounds are usually formed with covalent bonds, while organic compounds are almost always formed with ionic bonds.
Among the properties of organic compounds are combustibility, aromaticity, low melting and boiling points, solubility in organic solvents and water, and finally, isomerism (that is, the same combination of atoms can create different molecules).
Among the properties of inorganic compounds, we can recognize good conduction of heat and electricity, solubility in water, and high melting and boiling points.