Levels of organization of matter (with examples)

Levels of organization of matter (with examples)
Posted on 27-02-2022

The levels of organization of matter are the degrees of the increased complexity of the structures, from the atomic level to the total set of living beings on Earth.

What are the levels of organization of matter?

Levels of Organizations

Scheme of the levels of organization of matter.

Levels of organization of matter: chemical level

The most basic levels of the organization of matter are the object of study in chemistry.


The atom is the smallest fundamental unit of matter. It is made up of subatomic particles: protons, electrons, and neutrons. Atoms are part of all matter. Examples of atoms are:

  • hydrogen H: the simplest atom, with one electron and one proton.
  • oxygen O: atom with eight electrons, eight protons and eight neutrons.


Molecules are made up of two or more atoms. Examples of molecules are:

  • Water is a molecule made up of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom.
  • carbon dioxide CO 2with two oxygen atoms and one carbon;

biological macromolecules

They are large molecules, usually formed by polymerization of smaller units called monomers. The main atomic compounds are carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen. Examples of biologically important macromolecules are:

  • Proteins: such as antibodies and albumin.
  • Carbohydrates: such as glucose and cellulose.
  • Lipids: such as fatty acids and phospholipids.
  • Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA.

Levels of organization of living matter: biological levels

From these levels, we are in the presence of structures that characterize living beings.


The macromolecules come together and form organelles, structures with certain basic functions, such as synthesizing proteins or carrying out photosynthesis. Examples of organelles are:

  • the ribosomes,
  • the mitochondria,
  • the chloroplasts,
  • the lysosomes.


The cell is the fundamental unit of life. Some living things consist of a single cell:

  • bacteria, such as Escherichia coliand Pseudomonas aeruginosa ;
  • archaea, such as Metallosphaera sedulaand Nitrosopumilus maritimus;
  • protozoa, such as Trypanosoma cruziand amoebas.

Other beings are made up of a multitude of cells.


In multicellular organisms, cells form tissues, structures with similar cells that perform the same function. Examples of fabrics are:

  • bone tissue: that which constitutes the bones;
  • muscle tissue: is part of the muscles;
  • adipose tissue: forms fat.


Organs are a set of tissues in a structure with a common function. For example:

  • The heart: is the organ responsible for pumping blood through the body, made up of muscle tissue, connective tissue and connective tissue.
  • Plant leaves are the organs through which they capture light energy to synthesize organic compounds.

organ systems

In a system, several organs are related to fulfill a systemic function. For example:

  • the urinary system: it is responsible for eliminating toxic waste from the blood and the kidneys, ureters and bladder participate in it;
  • the respiratory system: is responsible for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide; for this it has the participation of organs such as the lungs, the trachea and the bronchi.


An organism is an individual multicellular living being that has an independent existence, made up of a variety of systems. Organisms are designated as species. Examples of organisms are:

  • the trees: such as the juniper Juniperus deppeanaand the teotlate Cupressus benthamii;
  • the animals: like the dog Canis lupis familiarisand the magnificent frogfish Sanopus splendidus ;
  • the human being: Homo sapiens sapiens.

Levels of organization of matter: ecological level

From these levels, interactions between the different living organisms are established, an area that is the object of study of ecology.


The individuals of the same species living within a specific area is known as a population. For example:

  • the chicken population within a farm;
  • the population of humans living in Jalisco.


When populations of different species inhabit the same area they form a community. For example:

  • A lake is a community made up of a population of fish, algae, cyanobacteria, insects and birds of different species.
  • A farm is a community where animals of various species, such as pigs, cows, chickens, rabbits and ducks, interact with populations of grasses and shrubs, and pollinating insects such as bees.


An ecosystem consists of the interrelation of living organisms with their physical space. For example:

  • Mangroves: they are coastal-marine ecosystems where plants, animals, bacteria live in an aquatic environment and at a certain temperature.
  • The dunes: they are terrestrial ecosystems where a certain diversity of plants and animals live, adapted to the conditions of drought and high temperatures.


The biosphere is the set of all the ecosystems of the Earth.


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