Mahajanapada period in Madhya Pradesh
600 BC The number of Mahajanapadas mentioned in the Buddhist text Angutara Nikaya and the Jain text Bhagwatisutra was 16. In which Chedi and Anvati districts were in M.P.
Chedi Janpad- Eastern part of present Bundelkhand and adjoining areas were included in it, whose capital was Shaktimani.
Avanti district- It was situated in the West and Central Malwa region. It had two parts northern Avanti (capital Ujjayini) and southern Avanti (capital Mahishmati). The Vetravati (Vetva) river flowed between them.
- The king of Ujjayini was Chandpraghot, the son of Pulika. Bimbisara and Yudh were contemporaries of Pradyota.
- At the time of Bimbisara, the relations of Pradyota with the kingdom of Magadha were friendly. When Pradyota was suffering from Pandurog, Bimbisara sent his royal doctor, Jivaka, for treatment.
- During the time of Ajatashutra (son of Bimbisara), the enmity between the kingdoms of Magadha and Avanti started growing.
- Avanti was the center of Buddhism at the time of Pradyota.
- Palak, the son of Pradyota, became the king of Avanti, who on the attack on Vatsa (Gwalior) took control of his capital Kaushambi and made his son Nishakhyup the vice-raja.
- After Palak, Ajak, and Nandivardhana ruled Avanti.
- The kingdom of Avanti was rich in the best craftsmen making iron and steel weapons.
- The description of two famous cities of Avanti, Kuradhar, and Sudarshanpur, is found in Buddhist texts.
- Later, Amatya Shishunaga, the last ruler of the Haryaka dynasty of the Magadha kingdom, defeated Nandivardhana, the last ruler of the Pradyota dynasty, during the invasion of the Avanti kingdom and merged Avanti into Magadha and the rule of Shishunaga dynasty started in Magadha.
- The capital of Magadha was both Vaishali and Girivraj. But later Vaishali was made the main capital.
- After Shishunag, son Kalashok became the king, and Pataliputra was made the capital.
- At the time of Kalashoka, the Second Buddhist Council was organized in which Buddhism was divided into two sects (Sthavira and Mahasandhika).
- Mahapadmanand killed Kalashoka and founded the Nanda dynasty.
- Nandvansh belonged to the Shudra caste. The last ruler of this dynasty, Dhanananda (who was a contemporary of Alexander) was assassinated by Chandragupta Maurya and established the Maurya dynasty.
- The Greek writers have called Dhanananda the ancients.