Majority of migrants stayed within that state between 2020-21: PLFS

Majority of migrants stayed within that state between 2020-21: PLFS
Posted on 16-06-2022

"Majority of migrants stayed within that state between 2020-21' PLFS

In News: According to the most recent Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) that also gathered information on migration for the first time, close to 88% of migrants shifted in the state they resided within during 2020-21, while 11.8 percent moved to a different state in the same time.

Today's article:

  • Overview of migration in India (About the types of immigration, motives of internal movement, the amount of labor force migrant, and the issues they face)
  • The News Summary (Finding in the PLFS report)

Overview of the migration process within India:

  • About migration:
    • The term "migration" refers to the moving of individuals away from their place of home and across the internal (within the country) or even international (across nations) boundaries.
    • article 19(1)(e) of the Indian Constitution provides every Indian citizen the freedom to live and establish themselves in any part of the state of India with reasonable restrictions that are in the best interests in the interests of all citizens or for the protection of any tribe that is scheduled.
    • According to the Census of 2011, as per the Census, India had 6 crore people residing in the country (38 percent from the total population) as compared to 31.5 million in 2001 (31 percent percentage of population).
    • From 2001 to 2011, when the population increased at 18% the number of people who migrated was up by 45percent.
    • In 2011 the majority of migration was domestic and foreigners (international migrants) made up 1 percent.
  • Patterns of migration
    • Internal flows of migrants can be classified based on the point of origin and destination.
    • One classification is one that is rural-rural ( 54% of the classifiable internal migration ) Urban-rural, rural-urban and urban-urban.
      • Urban and rural movement accounts for 8 crore people each.
      • The number of migrants was estimated at 3 crore. urban-rural migrants (7 percent of classifiable in-country migration).
    • Another method to categorize migration is to classify it as - Inter-state and intra-state.
      • In 2011, the movement of people within states was responsible for nearly 88% of the total internal migration (39.6 million people).
      • According to the Census of 2011, according to the Census in 2011, there were 5.4 crore migrants from across the state. In the year 2011, Uttar Pradesh(83 lakh) and Bihar were the top source of migrants from across the state, and Maharashtra(60 lakh) and Delhi were the top states for receiving.
  • The reasons for internal migration
    • Motives for migration between states:
      • In 2011 in 2011, the majority (70 percent) of intra-state The reason for the migration was because of Family and marriage with variations between female and male with differences between male and female.
        • In the case of women, 83% were married or moved to family for the purpose of marriage The percentage for males was 39%..
        • In all, 8% individuals travelled within the state to work (21 percent from male migrants as well as 22% of female migrants).
      • Motives behind interstate migration
        • The desire to workwas more frequent in those who were migrant workers from the states (50 percent of males and 5percent for females who are international migrants).
  • The size of the labour force that migrant workers comprise:
      • According to the Census the census, the number of migrant workers was 5 crore migrants in the year 2011.
      • The Economic Survey (2016-17), estimated 6 million interstate labour migrants between 2001 and 2011.
  • The challenges faced by migrants:
    • The absence of health insurance and social security and ineffective implementation of safety standards for minimum law.
    • The inability of transferring benefits from the state, especially those provided by the Public Distribution System (PDS) cannot be properly implemented.
    • Access for affordable homes and basic amenities in urban areas.
    • The lack of implementation of protections under protections under the Inter-State Migrant Workmen Act, 1979 (ISMW Act) which provides protections for workers who are migrant from other states.
    • The impact of Covid-19The lockdown has had a devastating impact on immigrants, who many were laid off due the closure of factories and were forced to work out of their homes.


News Summary of Findings from the PLFS

  • The data on migration was gathered in the PLFS survey to give more information about the situation of migration in the country.
  • The massive migration caused by the closure in the aftermath of the pandemic led to calls for more data on the subject to formulate policies to prevent a surge in the migration.
  • The rate of migration (percentage of immigrants belonging to either gender of people) across the nation was 28.9 percent during July 2020-21 timeframe the male rate of 10.7 percentage and female at 47.9 percent.
  • The study looked at the migration patterns of interns by four different types of migration streams that include rural-to-rural urban-to-rural, rural-to-urban, and urban-to-urban.
Thank You