Pallava Dynasty: There is a difference of opinion regarding the establishment of the Pallava dynasty. According to the remains, it can be said that this dynasty was established only after the decline of the Satavahana dynasty. Some historians consider Bappadeva to be the founder of the Pallava dynasty which ruled Andhra Pradesh. Kanchi was the capital of the Pallava dynasty. Simhavishnu is believed to be the real founder of this dynasty. Pallava dynasty UPSC SSC notes
Singh Vishnu (575-600 AD)
- Singh Vishnu was a majestic ruler of the Pallava dynasty. That is why it is also called the real founder of the Pallavas.
- He assumed the title of Avni Singh.
- During his reign, he increased his fame by defeating the Chera, Chola, Pandya, and Kalabha kings in battle. Its information is obtained from the Palayam copper plate of Valur.
- Singh Vishnu was a follower of Vaishnavism. He built the Varahaguha temple at Mamallapuram. In this temple, he also got the statues of himself and his wives installed.
- The great poet of Sanskrit, Bharavi was in his court. “Kiratarjuniyam” was composed by him.
Mahendravarman I (600-630 AD)
- Mahendravarman I became the ruler after the death of his father Singh Vishnu.
- He had composed a comic book named Matavilas, due to which got the title of Matavilas. Other titles such as "Gunabhar", "Shatrumalla" and "Liltankur" were also adopted.
- It was during this time that the Pallava's struggle with the Chalukyas began.
- Mahendravarman was defeated in the first battle by Chalukya king Pulakeshin II.
- He was also a disciple of famous musician Rudraacharya.
- Knowing from his father, he was a follower of Jainism, but after coming in contact with Saint Appar, he left Jainism and adopted Shaivism.
- Mahendravarman I is considered the father of the Mahendra style of temple construction. Guha temples were built by cutting hard stones, which were called mandapas. Makkonda Temple and Ananteshwara Temple are prime examples.
Narasimha Varman I (630-668 AD)
- Narasimhavarman I was the most powerful ruler of his dynasty.
- He assumed the title of "Mamalla".
- He decided to avenge the defeat of his father Mahendravarman I from the Chalukyas and organized his military force and started a conquest of the north. This information is obtained from the Kurram inscription.
- He defeated Pulakeshin II, the ruler of Chalukya dynasty, and captured his capital Vatapi. We get information about this from the stone inscription of Mallikarjuna temple of Vatapi (present-day Badami)-
- Piryal, Shurmar, and Manimangalam fought three battles with Pulakeshin II and defeated Pulakeshin II in all three.
- On conquering Vatapi, he assumed the title of "Vatapikonda".
- During his reign, the Chinese traveler Hiuen Tsang came to Kancheepuram.
- He also built many temples and the temples of this style were called Mamalla style.
- Constructed monolithic chariot temples. They are also called Saptapagoda.
- Established a town called Mahamallapuram, which is presently known as Mahabalipuram. It was here that Dharmaraja Temple, seven Peruvian temples was also built.
Mahendravarman II (668-670 AD)
- He became the ruler after the death of his father Narasimha Varman I.
- The struggle between Pallavas and Chalukyas continued even during his reign.
- He died in a battle with Vikramaditya I, the ruler of the Chalukya dynasty.
Parameshwaravarman I (670-695 AD)
- He became the ruler after the death of his father in 670 AD.
- He assumed the titles of Ekamalla, Lokadityu, and Gunabhajan.
- All the wars with Chalukya king Vikramaditya ended without any conclusion.
- Like his ancestors, Shaivism was also a follower. He got the Ganesh temple built at Mamallapuram.
Narasimhavarman II (695-720 AD)
- His reign was peaceful. Therefore, it made an important contribution to the field of art and literature. It is called the father of Raj Singh style of temple construction.
- Temples were built with stone bricks.
- Kailashnath Temple, Airavatesvara temple, and Baikuntha Perumal were built in Kanchi.
- It also built a Sanskrit college in Kanchi itself.
- He assumed the title of Rajasimha, Agampray, and was a devotee of Shankar.
- The famous Sanskrit scholar Dandi was in his court.
- In the year 720 AD, it sent a delegation to China.
Parameshwaravarman II (720-730 AD)
- Due to non-acceptance of the proposal of a humiliating treaty from the Chalukya king Vikramaditya II. The Chalukya king, with the help of the ruler of the Ganges dynasty, defeated it in battle and killed it.
- After his death, the Chalukyas occupied Kanchi as there was no worthy ruler in the Pallava dynasty.
Nandivarman II (730-795 AD) (Bhima dynasty)
- After the death of Parameshwaravarman, the last ruler of the Pallava dynasty, a civil war broke out in the kingdom. In the absence of any worthy successor, Nandivarman, the ruler of the Bhima dynasty (an ally of the Pallavas), took power.
- It re-organized the military power of the Pallavas and freed Kanchi from the subjugation of the Chalukyas.
- Dantidurga of the Rashtrakuta dynasty attacked Nandivarman II and defeated him in 750 AD. After the war, according to a treaty, Nandivarman II and Dantidurga's daughter Reva were married.
- He was a follower of Vaishnavism.
- The style used by him in the construction of the temple is known as the Nandivarman style. Small temples were built in this style. Mukteshwar temple of Kanchi is prominent among the temples of this style.
- The famous Vaishnava saint Tirumangai Alvar was contemporary.
Dantivarman (796-847 AD)
- He was the son of Nandivarman II and Reva. It was named after his maternal grandfather Dantidurga.
- The famous philosopher Shankaracharya was a contemporary of this.
Nandivarman III (847-872 AD)
- He ascended the throne after the death of his father Dantivarna.
- By his reign, the power of the Pallava dynasty had weakened considerably.
- It tried to reorganize the Pallas and defeated the Pandyas in battle.
- Like his grandfather, he married Shankha, the daughter of King Amoghavarsha of the Rashtrakuta dynasty.
Nripatangavarman (872-882 AD)
- Nandivarman was the son of III and his Rashtrakuta queen Shankha.
- He defeated the Pandya king Vargun II during his reign.
Aparajita Varman (882-897 AD)
- Aparajit Varman, the son of Nripatangavarman, became the last ruler of this dynasty.
- He was an incompetent and weak ruler.
- Taking advantage of this situation, its feudator Aditya I of the Chola dynasty killed it and absorbed the kingdom of the Pallava dynasty into his Chola empire.