Peshwa Empire – NCERT based History short notes of Peshwa Empire - Balaji Vishwanath, Bajirao-1, Balaji Bajirao, Madhavrao-1, Narayan Rao-2, Raghunath Rao, Madhavrao Narayan Rao-2, Bajirao-2 are given here.
Balaji Vishwanath (1713-1720)
- In 1713 AD Shahu, the ruler of the Maratha Empire gave the title of Peshwa to Balaji Vishwanath.
- After the death of Balaji Vishwanath in 1720, his son Bajirao-1 ascended the throne of Peshwa.
- The first Peshwa to attack Delhi was Bajirao I.
- He attacked Delhi in 1737. Because of this, the Mughal emperor Mohammad Shah was forced to leave Delhi. Another name of Mohammad Shah was Rangeela.
- Bajirao defeated the Nizam of Hyderabad at Pal Kheda (Nashik) in 1728 AD.
- Bajirao became famous for his relationship with Mastani. Mastani was the daughter of King Chhatrasal of Bundelkhand.
- In 1739, Bajirao snatched Salsit and Basin from the Portuguese. This victory is remembered as the victory of the basin.
- The ideal of Hindu Padshahi was started by Bajirao. This meant the union of all Hindu kings to end the Muslim rule over India and the establishment of a Hindu kingdom throughout India.
Balaji Bajirao (1740-1761)
- Balaji Bajirao is also known as Nana Saheb.
- Maratha ruler Shahu Ji died in 1749 AD. He had no successor.
- In 1750 AD, the Treaty of Sangola took place between Rajaram-II and Peshwas, under which all the important powers were subordinated to the Peshwas, and Rajaram-II was made a nominal Chhatrapati.
- The third battle of Panipat took place in 1761 AD during the time of Balaji Bajirao. Which happened between the Afghan ruler Ahmed Shah Abdali (who was the founder of the Durrani dynasty).
- Balaji Bajirao and his eldest son Vishwanath Rao were killed in this third battle of Panipat.
- Madhavrao ascended the throne of Maratha Peshwa after the third battle of Panipat.
- Madhavrao reinstated the Mughal emperor Shah Alam II, who was on the pension of the East India Company, on the throne of Delhi. The Mughal emperors had now become pensioners of the Marathas.
- He died in 1772 AD due to TB disease.
- Due to a lack of children, his younger brother Narayan Rao-2 became the next Peshwa.
Narayan Rao-2 (1772-1773)
- To get the throne of Peshwa Narayan Rao II was murdered by his uncle Raghunath Rao and his wife together.
Raghunath Rao (1773-1774)
- Raghunath Rao became Peshwa for a short time, but after some time the wife of Narayan Rao II removed Raghunath Rao from the post with the help of Nana Fadnavis to make her son Peshwa.
Madhavrao Narayan Rao-2 (1774-1796)
- Due to the young age of Peshwa Madhavrao, the Maratha state was looked after by a council of 12 members named Barah-Bhai Sabha.
- The two main members of this council were Mahadji Scindia and Nana Fadnavis.
- It was during this time that the First Anglo-Maratha War took place (1775-1782).
- The reason for the First Anglo-Maratha War was the removal of Raghunath Rao from the post after going to the British to seek help. The war ended with the Treaty of Salabai.
- Bajirao II was the last Peshwa and he became Peshwa after getting the help of the British.
- This contributed the most to the decline of the Maratha Empire.
- Bajirao II was the first Maratha to accept the subsidiary alliance initiated by Lord Wellesley.
- The Second Anglo-Maratha War took place during this time. This war ended with the treaty of Rajapur Ghat.
- The Third Angla-Maratha War also took place during his tenure.
- As a result of this war, the post of Peshwa was abolished and Bajirao II was sent to Bithoor near Kanpur with a pension.