Physical regions of Madhya Pradesh
SP Chatterjee has divided Madhya Pradesh into the following two major physical regions on the basis of surface diversity.
- Madhya Pradesh
- peninsular plateau region
Madhya Uchh Pradesh
The Central Highlands is a triangular plateau region, bounded by the Narmada-Sone valley in the south, the Kaimur ridge in the east, and the Aravalli ranges in the west. River valleys and basins are found in this region between ranges, hills, and plateaus.
On the basis of these surface features, the Madhya Pradesh has been divided into the following 6 parts-
- Malwa Plateau
- Plateau of Central India
- Bundelkhand Plateau
- Rewa Panna Plateau
- Vindhyachal Range
- Narmada Son Valley
Malwa Plateau (MP Malwa Ka pathar)
- The central-western part of Madhya Pradesh is known as the Malwa plateau. The extent of this plateau is in Guna, Rajgarh, Bhopal, Raisen, Sagar, Vidisha, Shajapur, Dewas, Sehore, Ujjain, Ratlam, Mandsaur, Jhabua, and Dhar districts.
- Its geographical location is between 20 ° 17' North latitude and 25 ° 8' North latitude and 74 ° 20' East longitude to 79 ° 20' East longitude.
- The Tropic of Cancer divides the Malwa plateau into two equal parts.
- Evidence of cracked volcanic eruptions and lava of the Cretaceous period is found on this plateau. The average elevation of the Malwa plateau is 500 meters above sea level.
- But the highest peak of this plateau is Sigar, whose height is 881 meters.
- The climate of the Malwa plateau region is tropical monsoon and the major rivers of this region are Kshipra, Betwa, Sonar, and Chambal.
- Due to the predominance of black soil in the Malwa plateau, the main crops of this region are wheat and cotton. Most of the people of this area do agriculture and animal husbandry. This state is the main industrial area of the state.
- The major cities of the Malwa plateau are Indore, Bhopal, Ujjain, Sagar, Ratlam, Dewas, Vidashi, and Dhar.
Plateau of Central India (Madhya Bharat ka Pathar)
- The Central Indian plateau lies to the northeast of Malwa. Its geographical location is located between 24 ° North latitude to 26 ° 48' North latitude and 75 ° 50' East longitude to 79 ° 10' East longitude.
- Waterlogged rocks covered with loamy soil are found in this area.
- Bhind, Morena, Gwalior, Shivpuri, Guna, and Mandsaur districts of Madhya Pradesh come under this state.
- The main rivers of the plateau of Central India are Chambal, Kali Sindh, Parvati, etc.
- The plateau of Central India has a continental climate.
- Due to the presence of alluvial and black soil in the plateau of Central India, crops of wheat, jowar, and millet are grown here. Shisham, Teak, Neem, Peepal, Khair, etc. are the main trees found in the forests here.
- The density of population in the plateau of Central India ranges from 110 to 272 persons per sq. km.
Vindhyan Kagari Pradesh (Rewa-Panna Plateau)
- Vindhya Kanki region is spread in the northeast of the Malwa plateau. It is also called the plateau of Rewa-Panna.
- The Vindhya Kanki region geographically extends between 23 ° 10' North latitude to 25 ° 12' North latitude and 78 ° 4' East longitude to 82 ° 18' East longitude.
- The height of the Vindhya Kanki plateau ranges from 300 to 450 meters.
- Here Bulli, Red, and Yellow soils are found. The average rainfall here is around 125 cm. Wheat is the main crop of this region. Rice is cultivated in this region towards the east.
- Limestone and diamond are the main minerals found here.
- Agriculture is the main occupation here. The major cities of this region are Satna, Rewa, Panna, Damoh, etc.
- The Vindhyachal range extends from western Madhya Pradesh to Bihar in the east. It is known as the range of Vindhyachal, Bhander, and Kaimur respectively from west to east. To the west of Hoshangabad, it is made of rocks of the Vindhyan age and to the west of Ganrugarh, it is made of lava rocks. The average altitude of this range is around 500 meters. Its height decreases from west to east. The Bhander-Kaimur ranges are the watersheds of the Ganges and Narmada basins.
- The rivers Chambal, Betwa, and Ken flowing from here join the Yamuna flowing northwards through the entire central high region.
Bundelkhand Plateau (BundelKhand Ka Pathar)
- The Bundelkhand plateau is in the northern part of the central highlands. It includes parts of the Chhatarpur, Panna, Tikamgarh, Datia, Shivpuri, and Guna districts of Madhya Pradesh.
- This plateau is formed by the erosion of ancient rocks called Bundelkhand Nis.
- Its geographical location is located between 24 ° 6' North latitude to 26 ° 22' North latitude and 77 ° 51' East longitude to 80 ° 20' East longitude.
- The climate of this region is continental type. Bulli loamy soil made up of a mixture of black soil and red soil is found in this area. Trees of Teak, Seja, Saaj, Tendu, Khair, Neem, Mahua, Bija, etc. are found in the tropical dry deciduous forests here.
- Here the population density is found to be from 123 to 186 persons per square km.
- Agriculture and animal husbandry are the main occupations of this region. The major cities of this state are Datia, Chhatarpur, Tikamgarh, Naugaon, Chanderi, etc.
Narmada Sone Ghati
- The part between the narrow valleys of the Narmada and Son rivers in the eastern western part of Madhya Pradesh is called the Narmada valley of the Son river.
- The Narmada Valley is situated between 22 ° 30' North Latitude to 23 ° 45' North Latitude and 74 ° East Longitude to 81 ° 30' East Longitude.
- This valley is the lowest part of Madhya Pradesh. Deep black soil is found here. Evergreen forests are found on the Mahadev and Satpura ranges. Crops like wheat, cotton, jowar , rice , bajra etc. are grown in this area.
- Limestone and coal are found in the Narmada valley, the main cities of this valley are Jabalpur , Narsinghpur , Hoshangabad , Raisne , Khandwa and Khargone.
Peninsular Plateau MP (Peninsular Pathari Pradesh)
The northern part of the peninsular plateau is called the Deccan plateau . The Satpura range situated on this plateau extends over the southern part of Madhya Pradesh. The hilly region situated to its east is called Baghelkhand plateau.
This mountainous plateau part of the Deccan plateau can be divided into the following two main parts
- Satpura-Maikal Ranges
- Baghelkhand Plateau (Eastern Plateau)
MP Satpuda Maikal Ranges
- The Satpura-Maikal ranges lie to the east of the western range in southern Madhya Pradesh. Their geographical extension is located between 21 ° North latitude and 23 ° North latitude and 74 ° 30' East longitude to 81 ° East longitude.
- The area of Satpura-Maikal is about 34,000 sq.km.
- The maximum height of Satpura area is 1350 meters (Dhupgarh) .
- In this region, the population is more in Khandwa and Khargone districts, the density of population is found less in other districts. Collecting produce from the forests and working in the mining industry is the main business here. Agriculture takes place in areas with flat land. This region is not accessible from the point of view of traffic. Most parts have rocky unpaved roads.
- Chhindwara , Burhanpur , Khandwa , Seoni , Betul , Mandla , Balaghat , Khargone , Barwani , Jhabua are the major cities of this region.
Baghelkhand Plateau (Eastern Plateau)
- The region east of the Son river and south of the Son valley in the eastern part of Madhya Pradesh is called the plateau of Baghelkhand.
- The extent of the plateau of Baghelkhand lies between 23 ° 40' North latitude to 24 ° 35' North latitude and 80 ° 05' East longitude to 82 ° 35' East longitude.
- In the plateau of Baghelkhand, rock groups of Proto-Mahakalp and Jurassic period are found. The Gondwana rock group is the geographical feature of this region. Major coal fields of Madhya Pradesh are located in this state. The main river of this region is Son.
- The climate of the plateau of Baghelkhand is monsoon. Black,red and yellow and stony soils are found here. The work of collecting forest produce from deciduous forests is done prominently here. Rice is the main crop here, linseed,jowar and sesame are also grown.
- Minerals like coal , bauxite , limestone , fire clay etc. are mainly found in the plateau region of Baghelkhand . Due to the inaccessible place of wildlife and hills in this area, there is a lack of means of transport.
- Amlai's paper mill and Raigad's jute industry are prominent among the industries here.
- Rewa , Satna , Umaria , Sidhi , Singrauli and Anuppur are the major cities in the eastern plateau.