Plantation Crops of India

Plantation Crops  of India
Posted on 20-08-2023

Plantation crops are cultivated on vast estates and demand substantial initial investments.

Tea, a crucial beverage crop in India, thrives in hot and humid climates with ideal temperatures between 20-30°C. Annual rainfall of 150-300 cm, evenly distributed, supports its growth, especially in well-drained, deep, friable loam soils rich in humus and iron. Tea is commonly grown on sloping hillsides, requiring ample cheap and skilled labor. Assam leads tea production, with other states like West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Uttarakhand, and parts of Himachal Pradesh contributing significantly.

Coffee, another plantation crop, necessitates a hot and humid climate with temperatures ranging from 15-28°C and annual rainfall of 150-250 cm. Well-drained, nutrient-rich, friable loams with ample humus and minerals suit coffee cultivation. Karnataka is the foremost coffee producer in India, followed by Kerala and Tamil Nadu. India ranks seventh globally in coffee production, cultivating both Arabica and Robusta varieties.

Rubber cultivation demands temperatures between 25-35°C and annual rainfall exceeding 200 cm in a hot and humid climate. Deep, well-drained, loamy soils on hill slopes favor its growth. Kerala dominates natural rubber production in India, with Tamil Nadu and Karnataka also contributing.

Spices like pepper, cardamom, chilies, turmeric, and ginger play a significant role in India's agricultural landscape. Pepper thrives in tropical climates with temperatures ranging from 10-30°C and well-distributed rainfall of 200-300 cm. It's a vine that requires support from other trees. Kerala stands as India's largest pepper producer.

Cardamom prefers climates of heat and humidity, with temperatures ranging from 15-32°C and rainfall between 150-300 cm. Well-drained forest loams and soils rich in humus and lead mold are ideal. Major cardamom-producing states include Kerala, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu.

Arecanut, used for chewing with betel leaves, grows well in temperatures of 15-35°C and annual rainfall of 200-300 cm. India ranks as the world's top arecanut producer, with Kerala leading the production followed by Karnataka, Assam, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu.

Coconut, used for extracting copra oil and producing various products like gur, sugar, toddy, and vinegar, thrives in temperatures ranging from 25-35°C and well-distributed rainfall of 125-130 cm. Kerala leads in coconut production in India.

Horticulture significantly enhances land productivity, generates employment, and uplifts farmers' economic conditions. India's diverse agro-climatic conditions allow for the cultivation of a wide range of horticulture crops. Major fruits like cashew nut, mango, apple, banana, orange, and grapes are produced alongside vegetables such as potatoes, onions, tomatoes, cauliflower, cabbage, beans, eggplants, cucumbers, peas, garlic, and okra.

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