Rashtrakuta Dynasty (753-973 AD): According to the records received, the original abode of the Rashtrakuta dynasty is considered to be Bidar in the Latur district. But later this dynasty was established in Elichpur (present-day Berar). Before the Rashtrakuta dynasty established its own independent rule, the Rashtrakutas were feudatories of the Chalukyas of Badami. Rashtrakuta Dynasty UPSC SSC notes.
- The Ellora and Elephanta (Maharashtra) cave temples were built during the period of the Rashtrakutas.
- There is a total of 34 caves in Ellora and Elephanta.
- Related to Buddhism from 1-12. Vishwakarma Cave, the 10th cave, is the most famous in Buddhism.
- Related to Hinduism till 13-29. The Narasimha form of Vishnu is shown in the 15th cave.
- Related to Jainism till 30-34.
- Rashtrakutas were followers of Shaivism, Vaishnavism as well as Jainism.
- He allowed Muslim merchants to trade and propagate religion in his kingdom.
Rashtrakuta Dynasty (753-973 AD)
Dantidurga (735-756 AD)
- In 752 AD, Dantidurga defeated Kirtivarman, the ruler of the Chalukya dynasty, and established the independent Rashtrakuta kingdom.
- After establishing an independent state, the capital of his newly formed state was made in Manyakhet (present-day Malkhed, Sholapur).
- By this the Hirangarbha Yagya was performed in Ujjaini, it is also known as Mahadan Yagya.
Krishna I (756-774 AD)
- After Dantivarman, his uncle Krishna became the king in the first year of 756 AD.
- Krishna I completely suppressed the Chalukyas of Vatapi as soon as the government came into the hand.
- This forced the Chalukyas of Vengi (Eastern Chalukyas) and also the Ganga rulers of Mysore to accept their suzerainty.
- The Kailash temple at Ellora was built by him.
Govind II (774-780 AD)
- Govind II was the son of Krishna I.
- Krishna I sent Govind II to attack Vengi, where the king was Vishnuvardhana IV. Vishnuvardhana IV was defeated in this war and accepted the suzerainty of the Rashtrakutas.
- Govind II was an inept ruler and he used to indulge in luxuries, taking advantage of which his brother Dhruva removed Govind II from the throne and himself took possession of the throne.
Dhruva Dharavarsha (780-793 AD)
- Dhruv Dhara became the ruler in the year 780 AD by removing his brother Govind II from the throne.
- This led to a campaign of conquest towards Uttarapatha.
- After his successful campaigns to the north, Dhruva made the emblem of Ganga-Yamuna his emblem.
- Dhruva was the first ruler who participated in the tripartite struggle to take control of Kannauj and defeated Pratihara king Vatsaraja near Jhansi and Pala king Dharmapala near Ganga-Yamuna doab.
- Dhruva is also known as Dharavarsha.
Govind III (793-814 AD)
- Govind III became the ruler after the death of his father Dhruva.
- According to the Sanjan copper plate, like his father, he started a conquest of Uttarapatha and extended his campaign up to the Himalayas.
- He also defeated the rulers of the Malwa, Kosala, and Kalinga dynasties during his campaign of Uttarapatha.
- He also defeated the Pallavas, Pandyas, and Ganga rulers in South India and also destroyed the unions formed by them by making treaties among themselves.
- He also participated in the triangular struggle started by his father and defeated the Pala ruler Dharmapala and the Pratihara ruler Nagabhatta.
Amoghavarsha I (814-878 AD)
- Amoghavarsha I was the son of Govind III.
- Amoghavarsha is considered to be the greatest ruler of the Rashtrakuta dynasty.
- Amoghavarsha was a follower of Jainism. The name of its guru was "Guru Jain Acharya Jinsen".
- In the early stages of his kingdom, he sat on the throne under the protection of Cancer due to his young age.
- By the reign of Amoghavarsha, the Rashtrakuta dynasty had expanded substantially and the state had attained stability.
- Amoghavarsha himself was a great scholar. He composed a poetic treatise 'Kavi Raj Marga' in the Kannada language.
- Due to his love of art and literature, he is compared with Chandragupta II Vikramaditya, the ruler of the Gupta dynasty.
- Due to Amoghavarsha I's peace-loving and liberal religious outlook, it is also compared to Emperor Ashoka by historians.
- Jinsen, the author of the Adipuran, Saktayana, the author of Amoghavritti, and Mahaviracharya, the author of the Mathisara collection, were in his court.
- He ended his life by taking a water samadhi in the Tungabhadra river.
Krishna II (878-914 AD)
- Krishna II was the son of Rashtrakuta ruler Amoghavarsha I.
- Krishna II was a weak ruler.
- Krishna II spent almost his entire reign in conflict with the Chalukyas.
Indra III (914-929 AD)
- Indra III was the grandson of Krishna II.
- Indra III became the lord of the Rashtrakuta kingdom after Krishna II.
- Indra III also participated in the triangular struggle and plundered Kanauj in 915 AD after defeating Pratihara ruler Mahipala.
- The Arab (Baghdad) traveler Alamsudi came to India during the reign of Indra III. Alamsudi described the then Rashtrakuta ruler (Indra III) as the best ruler of India.
Amoghavarsha II (929-930 AD)
- Amoghavarsha II was the grandson of Rashtrakuta ruler Amoghavarsha I.
- Amoghavarsha II ruled for only one year.
- Amoghavarsha II's brother was Govind IV, Govind IV removed Amoghavarsha II from the throne and himself became the king.
Govind IV (930-936 AD)
- Govind IV was a weak ruler, he failed to handle the Rashtrakuta kingdom empowered by Indra III.
- The power of the Chalukyas of Vengi had increased considerably by this time and the power of the Rashtrakuta kingdom was greatly weakened due to their invasions.
Amoghavarsha III (936-939 AD)
- Amoghavarsha III became the king of the Rashtrakuta dynasty after Govind IV.
- Amoghavarsha III was the second son of the grandson of Rashtrakuta ruler Amoghavarsha II.
Krishna III (939-967 AD)
- Krishna III became the next ruler after Indra III. It assumed the title of "Famine Year" and as soon as the power came in hand, it conquered Kanchi and Tanjore by campaigning for them.
- Krishna III was one of the most prolific kings of the Rashtrakuta dynasty.
- After successful campaigns in Kanchi and Tanjore, he assumed the title of "Tanjayamkond".
- Krishna III defeated King Parantaka I of the Chola dynasty and occupied their northern part. Established a temple and Vijay Stambha at Rameshwaram.
- Ponna, the author of "Shanti Purana", was in the court of Krishna III.
- After the death of Krishna III, disputes started among his successors regarding state power.
Khottiga Amoghavarsha IV (967-972 AD)
- Khottiga Amoghavarsha was the younger brother of Rashtrakuta ruler Krishna III, who ascended the throne after his death.
- Krishna III and Khottig Amoghavarsha were both sons of Amoghavarsha III, but they probably had different mothers.
Cancer II (972-973 AD)
- Karka II, Khottig became the ruler of the Rashtrakuta dynasty after Amoghavarsha, which could only remain in power for 18 months.
- Karka II was the last ruler of the Rashtrakuta dynasty.
- The Chalukya king Tailap II defeated Karka II in 973 AD and laid the foundation of the Chalukya dynasty of Kalyani .
Note: Karka II was the last ruler of the Rashtrakuta dynasty. But when asked in the competitive examination, "Who was the last great ruler of the Rashtrakuta dynasty?" So the answer would be "Krishna III". Because Krishna III was the last great ruler of the Rashtrakuta dynasty and Karka II was a weak ruler during which the Rashtrakuta dynasty ended and the Chalukya dynasty of Kalyani was founded.