We explain everything about rhinoceroses, what they eat, their reproduction, and other characteristics. Also, why is it in danger of extinction?
African rhinos have two horns, but Indian and Javan rhinos have only one.
Rhinos or abadas are known as certain species of large quadrupedal and herbivorous mammals, endowed with thick and hard skin, crowned by a single keratin horn in the middle of the snout.
In fact, its horn is its most distinctive feature, to the point that it appears at the origin of its name (from the Greek words rhino, "nose", and Kera, "horn") and has been a prized hunting trophy. , over the decades it has taken humans to bring this animal to the brink of extinction.
They are solitary and highly territorial animals, especially the males, whose horns are used to confront each other when competing for the right to mate or for control of a certain habitat.
Five species of rhinoceros exist , all classified zoologically within the family Rhinocerontidae :
A now-extinct species of woolly rhinoceros ( Coelodonta antiquitatis ) is also known, which was common in Europe and North Asia during the last glacial period.
It is estimated that these animals evolved in the late Eocene, about 56 million years ago, somewhere in Eurasia. Over the centuries they went from being small and numerous animals, to becoming the true colossi that they are today, the only living representatives (along with elephants and hippopotamuses) of the Pleistocene or Holocene megafauna.
Rhino skin is composed of overlapping layers of collagen, without hair.
In general, rhinos are characterized by the following:
In prehistoric times, rhinoceroses spread throughout much of the world, inhabiting North America and Europe until about 10,000 years ago, when many species were hunted to near extinction by early mankind.
Currently, they can only be seen in Africa (South Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Namibia, Angola, Botswana, Tanzania, depending on the species) and in some regions of South Asia (India, Nepal, Assam, Indonesia, Vietnam, Burma, Malaysia, Sumatra, and Borneo, depending on the species).
Rhinos eat leaves, but can also feed on roots, stems, and branches.
Rhinos are entirely herbivorous animals. Their diet is mainly made up of leaves, but they can also subsist on roots, stems, and branches that ferment efficiently in their colon. They have powerful molars and premolars with which to grind plant fiber and some species have a more or less prehensile frontal region of the snout.
Rhinos have only one calf per calving.
Like all other mammals, rhinoceroses reproduce sexually and viviparously. Males compete for females by smashing their horns together, often injuring themselves in the process, until one of them wins the right to the female. Pregnancies usually last a year and a half and shed a single calf per delivery, which at birth weighs about 65 to 40 kilograms. This can happen at any time of the year.
The life expectancy of a rhinoceros can vary according to its species, but it is estimated that in the freedom it ranges between 40 and 50 years, although cases of greater longevity have been recorded, although not by much.
According to data from the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), most Asian rhinoceros species (Javanese, Sumatran, and black rhinoceroses) are critically endangered, while the Indian rhinoceros is is on the previous rung, that is, in danger of extinction. Its hunting is prohibited and important efforts are made to preserve existing populations of the species.
For its part, the white rhinoceros presents very different conservation statuses depending on which of its two subspecies one refers to. The northern subspecies, Ceratotherium simum cottoni, which lives exclusively in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and other nearby regions such as Sudan, is in critical danger of extinction because of the three specimens that remained in custody in 2015, the only male died. in 2018.
In contrast, the southern subspecies, Ceratotherium simum simum, is classified as “near threatened” by international ecological organizations, with an estimated population of 20,150 animals in 2011, which represents a significant improvement over the thousand individuals that were counted previously. beginning of the 20th century.