Simon Commission 1927: While passing the Act of the Government of India Act 1919, the British Government had announced that it would review these reforms again after ten years. But in November 1927 itself, he announced the appointment of the commission, which was named the Indian Legal Commission, "Sir John Simon" was appointed as its chairman and all the seven members were British.
The main points regarding the Simon Commission 1927 Act are as follows-
- Although this commission was to be constituted by the British government after 10 years i.e. in 1929 in relation to constitutional reforms, the then ruling Conservative Party of Britain made up its mind to constitute this commission 2 years ago to take all the credit itself. At the same time, the then Secretary of State of the Conservative Party "Lord Birkenhead" believed that the Indian people themselves are incapable of planning for constitutional reforms, so it is necessary to appoint a Simon Commission.
- What was the reason for the opposition to the Simon Commission in India?
The main reason for Indian public anger was that no Indian was made a member of the commission and decisions regarding self-government in India were to be taken by foreigners.
- The police used sticks on the protesters. Jawaharlal Nehru and Govind Vallabh Pant were badly beaten up in Lucknow.
- Lala Lajpat Rai in Lahore died on November 17, 1928, due to injuries sustained by police sticks.
Congress' reaction to Simon Commission 1927 - In the Madras session of Congress (December 1927) under the chairmanship of M.A. Ansari, the Congress decided to boycott it at every level and in every form.
- The Kisan Mazdoor Party, the Liberal Federation, the Hindu Mahasabha, and the Muslim League together with Congress decided to boycott the commission.
- Whereas federalists in Punjab and Justice Party in South India decided not to boycott the commission.
- Meanwhile, "Moti Lal Nehru" got the resolution of complete independence passed.
Public reaction to Simon Commission 1927 – On February 3, 1928, the Simon Commission reached Bombay. There were strikes and protests throughout India and wherever they went they had to face black flags and slogans of "Simon go back".
- Indian members of the Central Legislative Assembly also refused to welcome the Simon Commission.
- In the midst of these opposing activities, “Jawahar Lal Nehru” and “Subhash Chandra Bose” emerged as prominent young nationalists and visited many places and addressed meetings.
The report of the Simon Commission was published in 1930. The main points of which are as follows-
- A responsible government should be formed in all areas including law and order in the provincial areas.
- The Central Legislature should be reconstituted. It should have a federal spirit and its members are indirectly elected by the provincial legislatures.
- A responsible government should not be formed at the Centre, because the right time has not come for this.
- The communal electoral system should be continued.
The British government held three round table conferences with representatives of British India and Indian princely states to consider the recommendations of the Simon Commission. Gandhiji also participated in these round table conferences on behalf of Congress. On the basis of these three conventions, the “White Paper of Constitutional Reforms” was created. Which was later included in the Government of India Act, 1935 with some amendments.
Why was the Simon Commission boycotted?
The main reason for boycotting the Simon Commission was the non-accommodation of Indians as members of the commission and the decision-making regarding the governance of India by foreigners.
After this came the Government of India Act 1935.