The elephants and big cats are counted together.

The elephants and big cats are counted together.
Posted on 08-06-2022

The elephants and big cats are counted together.

In the News:

  • The Union government will for the first time in this year, present a single assessment of Tiger, Leopard and Elephant population of the country, as per officials of the Union Environment Ministry.

The contents of today's news article:

  • About NTCA (Objectives and Functions Tiger census and Statistics)
  • Elephant Census (Data, Method used, etc.)
  • Important Information for The Preliminary Exam (Project Tiger and Project Elephant)

National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA):

  • The Tiger Survey in India is carried out by the NTCA every four years.
  • NTCA is an statutory entity formed under the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
  • It was founded in 2005, following the recommendation by the Tiger Task Force.
  • Objectives :
    • To grant legal authority in Project Tiger so that compliance with its rules becomes lawful.
    • to ensure accountability for the Centre-State in the management of Tiger Reserves.
    • To address the livelihood needs of the local population in areas around Tiger Reserves.
  • Functions :
    • To accept the tiger conservation plan drafted by the government of the state.
    • To ensure that reserves of tigers and the zones linking the protected area/tiger reserve to another aren't diverted to non-sustainable ecological uses.
    • Facilitate and assist the management of the tiger reserve within the state to ensure conservation of biodiversity.
  • Chairman The Secretary of Union for Environment, Forest and Climate Change

Latest Tiger Survey:

  • According to the most recent Tiger Census conducted in 2018-19 the tiger population in India has risen up to the number of 2967.
  • India makes up around 70 percent of the world's tiger population..

Elephant Census:

  • India has an elephant census(once every five years) however, it is mostly a head count of elephants in different elephant habitats, conducted by the state department of forest.
  • The most recent census was conducted in 2017 and found that India has 29964 elephants.
    • According to estimates of current population the estimated number of elephants is 50,000 to 60,000. Asian elephants around the globe More than 60% of them being in India.
  • Asian elephants are classified in the category " Endangered" on the IUCN Red List of threatened species.
  • The year 2020 saw 87 elephants died and 359 humans died in conflict between humans and elephants.

Methods for conducting Census:

  • The tigers are counted using cameras that identify people based on their stripes in addition to statistical analysis.
  • "Hand counting", also known as "head counting" method which is used to conduct elephant counting has become outdated and often causes double counting.

A new method is was proposed:

  • In August 2021 the Union government released the updated population estimation protocol to be implemented for the all-India elephant and tiger census in 2022.
  • The new method would be used to estimate the number of elephants will be determined by States by analyzing DNA of their dung and other statistical methods.
  • The process will consist of three phases:
    • Ground surveys, analysis of remotely sensed data, and camera traps.
  • The elephant population that are analyzed using the method are evaluated for the first time.
  • The method is commonly employed to estimate the tiger and leopard populations in India.

Important Information for Prelims:

  • Project Tiger :
    • Project Tiger Project Tiger was launched by the Government of India in 1973.
    • It is an Centrally sponsored Scheme that is administered by the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change.
    • Objectives :
      • To minimize the factors that lead to the destruction of habitats of tigers, and to reduce them through appropriate management.
      • To ensure a healthy population of tigers for the sake of scientific, economic, cultural aesthetic, ecological and aesthetic values.
    • Project Tiger funds activities. Project Tiger include:
      • Anti-poaching initiatives;
      • The strengthening of infrastructure in the tiger reserve;
      • Improvement of habitat and development of water;
      • The resolution of conflicts between animals and humans;
      • Helping States to develop staff and capacity-building in the tiger reserves.
    • Project Tiger was proven effective in increasing the number of tigers.
  • Project Elephant :
    • It is a centrally financed scheme, and was officially launched in February of 1992.
    • Objectives :
      • To safeguard elephants, their habitats and corridors.
      • To tackle issues of animal-man conflict.
      • The welfare of elephants in captivity.
      • To encourage people to not harm elephants with their tusks.
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