The management process according to various authors - GovtVacancy.Net

The management process according to various authors - GovtVacancy.Net
Posted on 29-10-2022

The management process according to various authors

Some of the most influential authors of management theory have issued their concepts about the management process, its definition, what it represents, and how it is composed. Its origin is conferred to Henri Fayol, a French engineer, who proposed the functions that make it up and their relationships.

Next, the ideas about the management process of some of the main authors of this academic discipline are presented, chronologically, from Fayol to Drucker:

Authors of the management process

The authors of the management process see the administration through the prism that represents the tasks of those who carry out this function in organizations, whether public or private. That is, what the administrator does becomes the function of the management process, which is considered a universal mechanism that can be applied in any type of organization and at all levels.

Henri Fayol

This French author is considered the father of the concept of the management process. Although in his work, “ Administration industrielle et générale ” (1916), he did not specifically call it that way, it can be said that the seed idea is found in his definition of administration From him:

"To manage is to anticipate, organize, command, coordinate and control"

At the same time, he specified each of the stages of the management process as follows:

  • To foresee is to scrutinize the future and draw up a program of action.
  • To organize is to constitute the double organism, material and social, of the company.
  • To command is to direct the staff.
  • To coordinate is to bind, unite and harmonize all acts and all efforts.
  • To control is to monitor so that everything happens according to the established rules and the given orders.

In this way, Fayol established the bases of the scheme that encompasses a highly complex task, such as administration, in a series of actions that allow it to be understood in a simpler way, thus facilitating its teaching.

lyndall urwick

Urwick, a British author, in “ The function of administration ” (1934) adhered to the functions originally described by Fayol, although he made a division in the function of forecasting assimilating it to the tasks of forecasting and planning.

In addition, he is cited as the forger of the terms management mechanics and management dynamics, corresponding to the phases of the management process, in an additional effort to give greater structure to the study of the work of the administrator.

Luther Gulick

In “ Notes on the theory of organization ” (1936) this American author, an expert in public administration, asked himself, what is the administrator's task? And what does an administrator do? , obtained in response an expanded management process, known as POSDCORB for its acronym in English, composed of the following functions:

  • P– Planning. plan. Outline what needs to be done and its methods to achieve the business purpose.
  • O – Organizing. Organize. Establish the formal authority structure through which work subdivisions are organized, defined, and coordinated.
  • S– Staffing. Integrate. Incorporate people, form work teams, prepare and train personnel, as well as provide and maintain good working conditions.
  • D – Directing. lead. Make decisions and translate them into general and specific orders and instructions, lead.
  • CO – Co-ordinating. Coordinate. Connect the various divisions and departments for seamless coupling.
  • R- Reporting. Report. Promote decision-making based on good documentation of tasks and processes.
  • B – Budgeting. Budget. Its objective is that through financial planning a better administration of expenses and investments can be exercised.

Ralph C Davies

Davies, an American author, proposed in " The principles of business organization and operation " (1937), an management process composed of three basic functions: planning, organization, and control. Defining them as follows:

  • Planning. Determine what will be done, how it will be done, where the necessary actions will take place, and who will be responsible.
  • Organization. It is the process by which the conditions necessary to achieve economic objectives effectively are created and maintained. These conditions have to do mainly with motivation, organizational structure, and procedures.
  • Control. Regulates the activities of the business in accordance with what is required in the plan. Ensures that performance is appropriate, coordinates efforts, and removes interference.

George R Terry

Terry, the author of “ Principles of Management ” (1953), suggested a six-function management process that could be advanced in any organization to achieve desired results:

  • Planning. Propose a method of action with a vision of the future.
  • Organization. Harmonize the operations of all components as a unified action.
  • Address. Direct efforts to achieve goals.
  • Coordination. Facilitate the performance of the appropriate actions at the right time and place.
  • Control. Keep efforts within the established paths.
  • leadership. Influencing people to cooperate voluntarily in the achievement of objectives.

Harold Koontz and Cyril O'Donell

In “ Principles of management; an analysis of managerial functions ” (1955) Koontz and O'Donell outline a 5-function managerial process:

  • Planning. Select the objectives, policies, programs, and procedures to achieve them.
  • Organization. Establish an intentional structure of roles, responsibilities, and activities that facilitates the achievement of objectives.
  • Integration. Provide the people required by the organizational structure.
  • Address. Guide the members of the organization through motivation, communication, and leadership.
  • Control. Seeks to make events fit into plans.

These authors propose coordination as the essence of the management process, they understand that it is through it that individual efforts aimed at achieving collective objectives are harmonized.

William Newman, Charles Summer, and Kirby Warren

These authors proposed, in " The Process of Management: Concepts, Behavior, and Practice " (1961), an operational reference framework for the management process, that is, based on classical management functions. They are close to the refined model of four functions, but assimilate the management function only to leadership.

  • Organization. Assign tasks and coordinate efforts.
  • Planning. Set objectives, establish policies and standardized methodologies, and develop programs, strategies, and schedules.
  • leadership. Integrate the needs of people with the welfare of the company or department, and promote cooperation and efficiency through communication and motivation.
  • Control. Measure progress against what was planned and take corrective action when necessary.

alec mackenzie

In the article “ The Management Process in 3-D ” (1969), this author takes up Koontz and O'Donnell's proposal and presents a management process with 5 functions:

  • Planning. Specify what the purpose or objective is.
  • Organization. Determine how the work will be broken down into manageable units.
  • Integration. Select qualified people to do the job.
  • Address. Advance a determined action towards the desired objectives.
  • Control. Measure results against the plan, reward people based on their performance, and reschedule work to make corrections, thus starting the cycle anew as the process repeats itself.

Peter F Drucker

This author, one of the most influential in modern management thinking, in “ Management. Tasks, responsibilities, practices ” (1973) established that there are five functions that constitute the work of the administrator and, therefore, of the management process:

  • Goal setting. Determine goals, what must be done to achieve them, and who will do it.
  • Organization. Analyze activities, decisions, and relationships. Classify and divide the work. Build the organizational structure. Integrate key personnel.
  • Motivation and communication. Build teams through your relationships with those you work with. Decide on compensation, placement, and promotions. Communicate vertically and horizontally.
  • Measurement. Establish individual, group, and general performance criteria and indicators. Analyze, evaluate and interpret the performance achieved.
  • People development. Promote the growth and personal enrichment of those who make up the organization.

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