What is Dyslexia?

What is Dyslexia?
Posted on 26-02-2022

When the child begins to take his first steps in learning the names of objects, colors, and others at home, sometimes it is common for them to make mistakes in them until they manage to learn them in a way that they already identify them. And it is when difficulties can arise in their rapid learning adaptation and signs of the presence of dyslexia arise.

We invite you to continue reading the following article so that you find out what dyslexia is, what causes it, recommendations, and existing types. It is important to be able to identify if it is really present in the life of the child or adolescent.



Dyslexia is a learning disorder in which it is difficult to read because it is not possible to identify the sounds of speech, their understanding, and their relationship to letters and words. This reading difficulty, as it is also known, affects areas of the brain where the learning of the individual is processed, this is intelligent, with normal vision.

Children with dyslexia tend to be successful in school if they are helped by a tutor, a specialized teaching program, and with a lot of emotional support, so it is important to diagnose it early and learn how to treat dyslexia.


The symptoms of dyslexia are usually difficult to establish, and its severity is variable, but it is usually evident when the child begins the learning process and especially in reading. Here are some signs at different stages:

  • Before school:
  • It takes time to start talking.
  • Learning new words is very slow.
  • Problems forming words properly invert sounds or confuses them.
  • Does not remember the names of letters, numbers, and even colors.
  • It is difficult for him to learn nursery rhymes.
  • At school age:
  • A low reading level according to age.
  • Difficulty processing what you hear.
  • Trouble finding the right word.
  • Difficulty remembering sequences.
  • Problems seeing similarities and differentiating letters as well as words.
  • He is unable to pronounce unknown words.
  • Can't spell.
  • Delay in completing tasks that involve reading or writing.
  • Avoid reading activities.
  • In adolescents and adults:
  • He can't even read aloud.
  • Read and write slowly and with difficulty.
  • Can't spell.
  • Avoid reading.
  • Mispronounce names or words.
  • Does not understand easy jokes or expressions.
  • Takes time to complete reading and writing tasks.
  • It fails to summarize a story.
  • It is difficult for you to learn a different language.
  • Can't memorize.
  • Math problems are difficult.


Risk factors for dyslexia include the following :

  • Family history with learning difficulties.
  • Being born prematurely or with low birth weight.
  • Exposure to: nicotine, drugs, alcoholic beverages during pregnancy, affects the development of the baby's brain.
  • Differences in the parts of the brain that are the ones that allow reading


In dyslexia, there are also classifications and two types are considered, which are the following:

  • According to the cause that allows its appearance:
  • Acquired dyslexia: it is a consequence of a specific brain injury.
  • Developmental dyslexia: it is not caused by an injury but the first symptoms are seen at school age.
  • According to the predominant symptoms:
  • Phonological dyslexia: the phonological route that the person carries out malfunctions, they do not break down into parts and the decoding of unknown words is difficult. In addition to lexicalization problems, visual errors, or derivatives.
  • Superficial dyslexia: the phonological route predominates and does not break words down small, what you write does not match the pronunciation. They regularly make mistakes, hesitations, syllables, repetition, stress, and very slow reading.
  • Deep or mixed dyslexia: in this, both the phonological and visual reading paths are damaged.


As with other conditions, the causes of dyslexia are not exactly known, but it is known that genetics plays an important role in it. Therefore, the possible causes are:

  • Genetic load: generally members of the same family suffer it in 40% of cases if they are siblings and 49% if their father or mother presents it.
  • Brain anatomy and activity: neuroimaging studies have shown significant differences in people who suffer from it and are in the area related to reading.


assess dyslexia

seven years old child lying with letters on blue background

Although there are signs that indicate that the person suffers from dyslexia, it is good and advisable to check its presence accurately through a professional evaluation. With this evaluation, it is possible to reach concrete conclusions and after it, start with the appropriate therapies for the patient, and ensure that he performs adequately in the learning stage.

Dyslexia, as is well known, is a disorder of reading difficulty, and therefore the first signs of its presence are given in the school stage, and it is the educational team of the institution that detects it, specifically the guidance department, for, For this reason, the Ombudsman recommends adapting the EVAU to the needs of students with dyslexia.

Although an independent or private professional can also carry out the evaluation, if its existence is suspected

Only that when it is done by the school institution, educational support is at hand as soon as possible and with personalized treatment, since each case must be treated individually. Although there are some children with dyslexia in the same place, they cannot be treated in the same way, they are different individuals with different ways of learning, and that is why they must be helped to overcome their individual difficulties.

The evaluation can also be carried out by a school psychologist, a clinical or health psychologist, and even a pediatric neuropsychologist, they not only determine the existence or not of dyslexia but also if another disorder such as ADD or anxiety exists together.


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